Peer-Reviewed and Academic Literature That Supports NaProTECHNOLOGY


II. Thomas W. Hilgers MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS - Biographical Sketch
III. Curriculum Vitae:
 A. Curriculum Vitae: Books 
      B. Curriculum Vitae: Book Chapters
      C. Curriculum Vitae: Films and Videotapes
      D. Curriculum Vitae: Articles
      E. Curriculum Vitae: Poster Presentations
      F. Curriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations
IV. Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY:
 A. Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model 
      B. Trends and Deficiencies in Infertility Treatment 
      C. Medical Risks of Infertility 
      D. NaProTECHNOLOGY in Infertility 
      E. Disorders of Human Ovulation 
      F. Follicular and Luteal Phase Deficiencies 
      G. Hormones vs. Artimones
      H. Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion 
       I. Effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in the Treatment of Infertility 
      J. Premenstrual Syndrome 
      K. Postpartum Depression 
       L. Dating the Beginning of Pregnancy 
      M. Using Progesterone Support During Pregnancy 
      N. Prevention of Preterm Birth 
      O. Surgical NaProTECHNOLOGY



For physicians, especially obstetrician-gynecologists, who hear about NaProTECHNOLOGY for the first time, they are often concerned that there is not any peer-reviewed medical literature or academic literature which supports this approach.  However, over the last 30 to 40 years, there has been a large volume of literature which has been published and presents itself as foundational work to both the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System and the women’s health science of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

It is of interest to note that over this period of time, there have been literally hundreds of thousands of scientific papers published in the medical literature relative to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine.  It is generally not possible for practicing physicians, or even those in academic medicine, to keep abreast of that volume of literature.  As a result, different medical organizations assist the practicing physician in “packaging” the results of various literature.  This then becomes the platform of information upon which physicians support their own approach to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine.

With the advent of the oral contraceptive in 1960, followed rapidly by the legalization of induced abortion and the wide availability of in vitrofertilization (artificial reproductive technologies), contraception, sterilization, abortion and the artificial reproductive technologies have become a mainstay for physicians practicing in this field.  In addition, organizations such as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology which strongly supports this approach to medicine, wrap their committee opinions in this approach.  While this is being accomplished, a wide availability of medical literature has been slipped aside and, for most physicians, completely lost to their access.  In fact, residency programs for the training of young physicians tend to follow these approaches and it has built a profession which often thinks there is no other alternative.

The approach of NaProTECHNOLOGY requires a different way of problem solving.  It is not in the general thrust of the profession, but, at the same time, this is not the same as saying this is not scientifically sound.  In fact, there has been a large volume of literature that has been published over these years which supports the approach taken in NaProTECHNOLOGY.

This section of the web site presents some of those references.  First of all, it begins with a biographical sketch of Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, the Director of the Pope Paul VI Institute, where most of the foundational research for this has been undertaken.  Secondly, it presents a partial list of Dr. Hilgers’ peer-reviewed and academic publications.  Thirdly, it presents a large volume of literature citations where, if the physician is willing to dig in, read and evaluate, the physician will find the data that supports the NaProTECHNOLOGY approach.

In those sections, citations supporting the scientific foundations of the Creighton Model, trends and deficiencies in infertility treatment, the medical risks of infertility, NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, disorders of human ovulation, follicular and luteal phase deficiencies, hormones versus artimones, recurrent spontaneous abortion, the effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, premenstrual syndrome, postpartum depression, the dating of the beginning of pregnancy, progesterone support during pregnancy, the prevention of preterm birth, and surgical NaProTECHNOLOGY are presented in an exhaustive fashion.

It should be noted, in reviewing this, that the textbook, The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, should serve as foundational reading for how this literature is interpreted and integrated along with the additional research that has been conducted in a voluminous fashion at the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction.  It is prudent to try to integrate this literature with that textbook to appreciate and understand how it is being interpreted and integrated.


Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS


Dr. Thomas Hilgers is the founder and director of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction, in Omaha, Nebraska.  The Institute is dedicated to research, education and service in the areas of human reproduction within the philosophical and moral framework found in the teachings of the Catholic Church.  He currently serves there as a Senior Medical Consultant in Obstetrics, Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine and Surgery.  He is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology and gynecologic laser surgery and is a member of the Society of Reproductive Surgeons.

He has served on the faculty of medicine at St. Louis University School of Medicine and Creighton University School of Medicine in their Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  While at Creighton, he founded and directed the Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center.  Along with his colleagues, he is the developer of the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System, a thoroughly standardized modification of the Billings Ovulation Method.  His ongoing medical research and application of this system has led to the development of the new women’s health science called NaProTECHNOLOGY.  In July 2004, he published the first definitive medical textbook on this new science,The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

He is also a founder of the American Academy of Fertility Care Professionals, FertilityCare™ Centers of America and FertilityCare™ Centers International.

He is the author of nearly 113 professional books, book chapters, and articles.  He has also produced 11 videotapes, presented 7 different poster sessions at professional meetings and countless numbers of audiotapes.  In addition, he is the recipient of 5 different research awards and has been awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Assumption College, Worcester, Massachusetts and an honorary doctorate of public health from Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio.  In 1994, Pope John Paul II appointed him to full membership in the Pontifical Academy for Life and with his wife, Susan he served for five years on the Pontifical Council for the Family.  In 1997, the Nebraska Family Council named Dr. Hilgers Physician of the Year.  In 2001, he was presented with the John Cardinal Wright Award by the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars and in October, 2003, he received the Linacre Award, the highest award given by the Catholic Medical Association.  The Hilgers are the parents of four sons and one daughter.


Curriculum Vitae: Books

  1. Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.): The Gift of Life:  The Proceedings of a Conference on the Vatican Instruction on the Respect for Human Life.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press.  Omaha, Nebraska, 1990.
  2. Hilgers TW:  The Medical Applications of Natural Family Planning:  A Contemporary  Approach to Women’s Health Care.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press.   Omaha, Nebraska, 1991.
  3. Hilgers TW:  The Scientific Foundations of the Ovulation Method. Pope Paul VI Institute Press.  Omaha, Nebraska 1995.                 
  4. Hilgers TW,  Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK:  The Picture Dictionary of the Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2001.
  5. Hilgers TW:  The Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System, An Introductory Booklet for New Users.  Pope Paul VI Institute Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  6. Hilgers TW:  Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology:  A Primer for FertilityCare Professionals.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  7. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Hilgers SK,  Prebil AM: The Creighton ModelFertilityCareTM System:  A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching.  Book I - Basic Teaching Skills, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002.
  8. Hilgers TW, Hilgers SK,  Prebil AM, Daly KD: The Creighton ModelFertilityCareTM System:  A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching.  Book II - Advanced Teaching Skills, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003.
  9. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: The Creighton ModelFertilityCareTM System Core Curriculum, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003.
  10. Hilgers TW, The Medical and Surgical Practice ofNaProTECHNOLOGY, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE  2004.


Curriculum Vitae: Book Chapters

  1. Hilgers TW:  “Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method.”  In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.) Human Love and Human Life.  Polding Press.  Melbourne, 1979.
  2. Hilgers TW:  “An Obstetrician Looks at Natural Family Planning.” In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.)  Human Love and Human Life.  Polding Press.  Melbourne, 1979.
  3. Hilgers TW:  “The New Technologies of Birth.”  In:  McCarthy D (ed.):  The New Technologies of Birth and Death: Medical, Legal and Moral Dimensions.  Proceedings of the Workshop for Bishops of the United States and Canada.  Dallas, Texas, January 28-31, 1980.  Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, St. Louis, MO, 1980.
  4. Hilgers TW:  “Human Sexuality: Contemporary Lessons to be Learned.” In:  Proceedings of Sixth Combined Conference of the Guild of St. Luke and SS. Cosmas and Damian.  Horizons of Medicine - Manipulation of Man.  Masterton, New Zealand. Nov. 1-4, 1984.
  5. Hilgers TW:  “The Correlation of Ovulation and Other Biologic Parameters with Natural Family Planning.”  In:  The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility. The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility  Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy.  Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 131-142.
  6. Hilgers TW: “ The Psychosexual Aspects of Natural Family Planning.”  In:  The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility.  The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy.  Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 181-192.
  7. Hilgers TW:  “The Ovulation Method and the Study of Reproductive Abnormalities.”  In:  The Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Fertility Regulation Today.  Sponsored by the       World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  March 17-19, 1988.  Rome, Italy, In Press.
  8. Hilgers TW:  “Expanding our Human Sexual Horizons.”  In:  The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW, (Eds.).  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1990, pp. 41-48.
  9. Hilgers TW:  “Recent Advances in Infertility Evaluation and Treatment.”  In:  The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.);  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1990, pp. 127-148.
  10. Hilgers TW:  “Family Planning Issues:  Norplant, Uterine Isolation and Natural Family Planning.”  In:  Proceedings of the Eleventh Bishops Workshop - The Interaction of Catholic Bioethics and Secular Society.  Edited by Russell Smith, Pope John Center, Braintree, MA, February 5, 1992.
  11. Hilgers TW:  “Creighton Model Natural Family Planning.”  In:  The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility:  The Authentic Alternative, Trujillo AL and Sgreccia E, (Eds.). Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 1994, pp. 154-168.
  12. Hilgers TW:  "Prenatal and Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis:  Duty or Eugenic Prelude?" In:  Human Genome, Human Person and the Society of the Future:  The Proceedings of  Fourth Assembly Pontifical Academy for Life.  Corea J and Sgreccia E (Eds.).  Vatican City.  Feb. 23-25, 1998.  Librareria Editrice Vaticana 000120 Citta del Vaticano, 1999, pp. 173-189.


Curriculum Vitae: Films and Videotapes

  1. Hilgers TW:  The Beginnings of Human Life.  Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE,1982 - Videotape.
  2. Hilgers TW:  The Emotional Aspects of Infertility:  Experiences of Three Couples. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE, 1985 - Videotape.
  3. Hilgers TW:  Encountering Human Ecology:  Natural Family Planning.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1989 - Videotape.
  4. Hilgers TW:  Living Proof:  A Visual Encounter with the Unborn.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 29 minutes, 1990 - Videotape.
  5. Hilgers TW:  Visualization Techniques in Infertility.   Pope Paul VI Institute Press.  Omaha, NE, 1992, Videotape.
  6. Hilgers TW: Living Proof in 3-D:  Putting a Face on the Unborn Human Person.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2000, 15 minutes, Videotape.


Curriculum Vitae: Articles

  1. Hilgers TW:  “Luteal Phase Defects:  Diagnosis and Implications.”  In: Seminars in Obstetrics and Gynecology 1971-1972.  A publication of the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine.  Mayo Clinic.  Rochester, Minnesota, 1972.
  2. Hilgers TW:  “Human Reproduction:  Three Issues for the Moral Theologian.” Theological Studies. 38:136-152, March, 1977.
  3. Hilgers TW:  “The Protection Afforded by the Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction”  Bull. Nat. Fam. Plan. Council Vict. 4:4-12.  September, 1977. 
  4. Hilgers TW:  “The Ovulation Method: Ten Years of Research”  Linacre Quarterly.  November, 1978.
  5. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Cavanagh D: “Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Mucus Symptom and Estimated Time Of Ovulation”  Obstet. Gynecol. 52:575-582, 1978.
  6. Bailey AJ, Hilgers TW:  “Feminine Hygiene Products:  A Catalog with Commentary.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 2:233-244, 1978.
  7. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM  “The Ovulation Method - Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility.”  Obstet. Gynecol. 53:12-22, 1979.
  8. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning.  Quality Control through Applied Research.” In:  Proceedings of an NIH Conference on Natural Family Planning.  Bethesda, MD, June 1979.
  9. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning II. - The BBT and Estimated Time of Ovulation.” Obstet. Gynecol. 55:333-339, 1980.
  10. Hilgers TW:  “A Critical Evaluation of Effectiveness Studies in Natural Family Planning.”  In:  Proceedings of an International Symposium on Natural Family Planning sponsored by the World Health Organization.  Dublin, Ireland, October 8-9, 1979.
  11. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK:  “Natural Family Planning III. - Intermenstrual Symptoms and Estimated Time of Ovulation.”  Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981.
  12. Hilgers TW, Bailey AJ, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK:  “Natural Family Planning IV. - The Identification of Postovulatory Infertility.”  Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981.
  13. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Hilgers SK and Daly KD:  “The Occurrence of Ovulation at the Midcycle.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 4:227, 1980.
  14. Vrbicky KW, Wells IC, Hilgers TW, Kable WT, Baumstark JS and Elias CJ:  “Evidence for the Involvement of Beta-Endorphin in the Human Menstrual Cycle.”  Fertil. Steril. 38: 701-704, 1982.
  15. Hilgers TW:  “The American Academy of Natural Family Planning.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:306-317, 1983.
  16. Hilgers TW:  “Continuous Mucus in the Use of the Ovulation Method”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:326-341, 1983.30. Hilgers TW:  “Current Research in Cervical Mucus.”  In:  Bernard C (Ed.) Proceedings of the World Conference on the Family of Asia and Australia. Madras India, Jan. 1983.  pp.105-112.
  17. Hilgers TW:  “The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 8:226, 1984.
  18. McLean PA and Hilgers TW:  “Ovulation Method Charting in Patients Taking Danazol.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:168, 1985.
  19. Slacks RM and Hilgers TW: “Advertising Trends in Major Journals of Obstetrics and Gynecology”: 1983.  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:292, Winter 1985.
  20. Hilgers TW:  “Professional Program Development in Natural Family Planning”.  Linacre Quarterly.  53:42-49, Feb. 1986.
  21. LaBarber SA, LaBarber LP, Hilgers TW:  “Impact of the NFPP Educational Program on Interns and their Families”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. No. 11:  255, 1987.
  22. Hilgers TW:  “The Objective Assessment of the Vulvar Mucus Cycle.”  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 250-258, Fall 1988.
  23. Cvetkovich LL, Hilgers TW, Gentrup BB:  “Continuous       Mucus Correlation of Point of Change with Preovulatory Rise in Estradiol-17β.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 12:340-352, 1988.
  24. Ricaurte E and Hilgers TW: Complications of 32% Dextran 70 When Used as an Antiadhesion Adjuvant.” J. Repro. Med.,Vol. 34, 8:535-539, Aug. 1989.
  25. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Prebil, A.M:  "The Length of the Luteal Phase”.  Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 13:99, 1989.
  26. Hilgers TW, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Ellis RL and Yaksich PJ:  “Sonographic Definition of the Empty Follicle Syndrome” J. Ultrasound Med. 8:411-416, 1989.
  27. Hilgers TW:  “The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous ‘Booster’ GnRH (self-administered) for Ovulation Induction.” (Abstract).  Presented at:  Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs.  Serono Symposia, February 26 - March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  28. Hilgers TW:  “Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract). Presented  at:  Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs.  Serono Symposia, February 26 - March, 1991,  Scottsdale, AZ.
  29. Hilgers TW:  “Successful Pregnancies in Kallman’s Syndrome Using Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract).  Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs.  Serono Symposia, February 26 - March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ.
  30. Vasiliades J, Hilgers TW, Gentrup B, Remsburg J:  “Increased Estradiol Concentration of Unknown Origin.”  Clinical Chemistry.  37:2152, 1991.
  31. Hilgers TW:  “A Simple, Safe Technique for Placement of the Veress Needle and Trochar in Laparoscopy”  J. Lap. Surg. Vol. 2, 4:189-192, 1992.
  32. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK:  “Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility in Fertility-Focused Intercourse” J. Repro. Med., Vol. 37, 10:864-866, Oct. 1992.
  33. Hilgers TW, Kimball CR, Keck SJ, Dvorak AD and Tamisiea DF:  “Assessment of the Empty Follicle Syndrome by Transvaginal Sonography”  J. Ultrasound. Med. 11:313-316, 1992.
  34. Hilgers TW: “Norplant”  Linacre Quarterly 60:64, 1993.
  35. Hilgers TW:  “Life...the (Significant) Other Side of the Coin”  Linacre Quarterly 60:78-81, 1993.
  36. Hilgers TW:  “Scientific Research on the Methods of Diagnosing Fertility."  Presented at the Theological and Pastoral Congress for the 25th Anniversary of Humanae Vitae, Vatican City State, Nov. 24-26, 1993.
  37. Hilgers TW:  “Uterine Isolation”  Linacre Quarterly 1:82-87,   1994.
  38. Hilgers TW:  “The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility: The Authentic Alternative” Linacre Quarterly 62:52-59, 1995.
  39. Vasiliades J, Hilgers T, Gentrup B:  “Long Term Stability of Hormones in Serum” Clinical Chemistry. 41: S59, July 18, 1995.
  40. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB:  “Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for Avoiding Pregnancy: Use Effectiveness”  J. Repro. Med. 43:  495-502, June, 1998.
  41. Hilgers TW and Yeung P:  "Intratubal Pressure Before and After Transcervical Catheterization of the Fallopian Tubes" Fertil. Steril. 1999; 72:174-8.
  42. Hilgers TW:  “Reproductive Medicine and the Violation of the ‘Free Exercise’ Clause of the United States Constitution”  Linacre Quarterly.  69: 79-86, 2002.


Curriculum Vitae: Poster Presentations

  1. Hilgers TW:  Cervical Mucus Anomalies in Patients with Endometriosis.  The Second International Symposium on Endometriosis.  May 1-3, 1989, Houston, TX
  2. Hilgers TW:  Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 - March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ
  3. Hilgers TW:  Successful Pregnancies in Kallmann Syndrome using Pulsatile GnRH.  Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 - March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ
  4. Hilgers TW:  The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous “Booster” GnRH (Self-Administered) for Ovulation Induction. Symposium on       Modes of Action on GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 - March 2, 1991, Scottsdale,       AZ
  5. Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S, Fong N: Outcome of Pregnancy by Status of Dominant Follicle as Evaluated by Ultrasound.  Ovulation Induction:  Basic Science and Clinical Advances - An International Conference.  A Ferring Symposium, January 20-22, 1994, Palm Beach,  FL
  6. Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S and Fong N:  A Comprehensive Classification of Ovulation Disorders       in a Subfertility Population as Defined by Ultrasound. Ovulation Induction:  Basic Science and Clinical Advances - An International Conference.  A Ferring Symp. Jan.20-22, 1994, Palm Beach, FL
  7. Hilgers TW:  Hormonal Correlates to Sonographically Identified Ovulatory Defects. 44th Annual Convention.  American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 3-4, 2000.


Curriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations

  1. Hilgers TW: Pregnancy Achievement and Outcome In Sonographically Observed Spontaneous Ovulation.  44th Annual Convention.  American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000.
  2. Hilgers TW:  The Sonographic Assessment of the Cervix Following Cervical Cerclage. 44th Annual Convention.  American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000.


Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY

A. Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model

  1. Pommerenke WT: American Journal of Obstet Gynecol 52: 1023, 1946.
  2. Rydberg E: Acta. Obstet Gynec Scand 29 (fac.1):127, 1948.
  3. Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952.
  4. Smith WT: The Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhea, Churchill, London, 1855.
  5. Sims JM: British Medical Journal, 2: 465-492, 1868.
  6. Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980.
  7. Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952.
  8. Zondek B and Rosen S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954.
  9. Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972.
  10. Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979.
  11. Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
  12. Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979.
  13. Faccioli G, Cortesi S, and Calderoni P: Structure of Human Cervical Mucus Correlation with Plasma Ovarian Hormone Levels. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. 14:41-50, 1983.
  14. Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984.
  15. Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981.
  16. Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986.
  17. Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983.
  18. Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994.
  19. Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994.
  20. Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971.
  21. Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984.
  22. Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984.
  23. Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979.
  24. Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973.
  25. Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972.
  26. Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, et al: Fertil Steril 33: 288-293, 1980.
  27. Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981.
  28. Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972.
  29. Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976.
  30. Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979.
  31. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978.
  32. Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatropins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981.
  33. Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979.
  34. Hilgers TW: Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method. In: Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne, Australia, p59, 1979.
  35. Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985.
  36. Daily DC, Reuter K, Cohen S, et al: Follicle Size by Ultrasound versus Cervical Mucus Quality: Normal and Abnormal Patterns in Spontaneous Cycles. Fertil Steril 51: 598-603, 1989.
  37. Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987.
  38. Depares J, Ryder, REJ, Walker SM, et al: Ovarian Ultrasonography Highlights Precision of Symptoms of Ovulation as Markers of Ovulation. Brit Med J 292: 1562, 1986.
  39. Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986.
  40. Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  41. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  42. Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978.
  43. Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989.
  44. Fehring RJ and Lawrence DM: Spiritual Well-being, Self-esteem and Intimacy Among Couples Using Natural Family Planning. Linacre Quarterly. pp. 18-29, August 1994.
  45. Hilgers TW: The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8: 226-264, 1984.
  46. Tietze C and Lewit S: Statistical Evaluation of Contraceptive Methods: Use-Effectiveness and Extended Use-Effectiveness. Demography 5: 931, 1968.
  47. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998.
  48. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, and Daly KD: The Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method as a Means of Achieving and Avoiding Pregnancy. Paper presented at the Education Phase III Continuing Education Conference for Natural Family Planning Practitioners, Mercy Fontenelle Center, Omaha, Nebraska, July 1980.
  49. Doud J: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model of NFP. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 9:54-72, 1985.
  50. Howard MP: Use Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method (Creighton Model) of Natural Family Planning. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Natural Family Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1990.
  51. Fehring RJ, Lawrence D, and Philpot C: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. J Obstet Gynecol, and Neonat Nurs 23: 303-309, 1994.
  52. Tietze C: The Clinical Effectiveness of Contraceptive Methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 650-656, 1959.
  53. Tietze C and Lewit S: The IUD and the Pill: Extended Use-Effectiveness. Fam Plan Perspec 3: 53-55, 1971.
  54. Tietze C and Lewit S: Use Effectiveness of Oral and Intrauterine Contraception. Fertil Steril 22:508-513, 1971.
  55. Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968.
  56. Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982.
  57. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992.
  58. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, and Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the CREIGHTON MODEL FertilityCareTMSystem. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1999.


B. Trends and Deficiencies In Infertility Treatment

  1. Tietze C, Guttmacher AF, Rusin S:  Time Required for Conception in 1727 Planned Pregnancies.  Fertil Steril 1:338, 1950.
  2. Bayer SR, Alper MM, Penzias AS:  The Boston IVF Handbook of Infertility.  Parthenon Publishing Group, Boca Raton, 2002.
  3. Chandra A, Stephen EH:  Impaired Fecundity in the United States:  1982-1995, Family Planning Perspectives.  30:34-42, 1998.
  4. Stephen EH, Chandra A:  Updated Projections of Infertility in the United States:  1995-2025.  Fertil Steril 70:30-34, 1998.
  5. Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, et al:  Delay in Conception for Former “Pill” Users. JAMA 247:629-632, 1982. 
  6. Lukse MP, Vacc NA:  Grief, Depression and Coping in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment.  Obstet Gynecol 93:245-251, 1999.
  7. Reading AE, Kerin J:  Psychological Aspects of Providing Infertility Service.  J Reprod Med.  34:861-871, 1989. 
  8. Bachu A, O’Connell M:  Fertility of American Women:  Population Characteristics.  Current Population Reports.  June 1998 U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, June 1998 (Issued September 2000).
  9. Hull MGR, Cahill DJ:  Female Infertility.  Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 27:851-876, 1998.  Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am.
  10. Hornstin MD, Schust D:  Infertility.  In:  Berek JS, Adashi EY, Hillard PA (Eds) Novak’s Gynecology. 12th Edition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996.
  11. Rein MS, Barbieri RL:  The Infertile Couple.  In:  Kistner’s Gynecology and Women’s Health.  7th Ed.  Ryan KJ, Berkowitz RS, Barbieri RL, Dunaif A (Eds).  Mosby. St. Louis, 1999. 
  12. Glatstein IZ, Harlow, BL, Hornstin MD:  Practice Patterns Among Reproductive Endocrinologists:  The Infertility Evaluation.  Fertil Steril 67:443-451, 1997.
  13. Guermandi E, Vegetti W, Bianchi M, et al:  Reliability of Ovulation Tests in Infertile Women.  Obstet Gynecol 97:92-96, 2001. 
  14. Al-Badawi IA, Fluker MR, Bebbington MW:  Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Infertile Women with Normal Hysterosalpingograms. J Reprod Med 44:953-957, 1999.
  15. Wood GP:  Laparoscopic Examination of the Normal Infertile Woman.  Obstet Gynecol 62:642-643, 1983. 
  16. Corson SL, Cheng A, Gutmann JN:  Laparoscopy in the “Normal” Infertile Patient:  A Question Revisited.”  J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7:317-324, 2000.
  17. Davis OK, Rosenwaks Z:  Super-Ovulation Strategies for Assisted Reproductive Technologies.  Seminars in Reproductive Medicine.  19:207-212, 2001. 
  18. Agarwal SK, Buyalos RP:  Clomiphene Citrate with Intrauterine Insemination:  Is it Effective Therapy in Women Above the Age of 3 Years.  Fertil Steril 65:759-763, 1996.
  19. Meeks GR, McDonald J, Gookin K, et al:  Insemination with Fresh Donor Sperm.  Obstet Gynecol 68:527-530, 1986.
  20. Yeh J, Seibel MM:  Artificial Insemination with Donor Sperm:  A Review of 108 Patients.  Obstet Gynecol 70:313-316, 1987.
  21. Bradshaw KD, Guzick DS, Grun B, et al:  Cumulative Pregnancy Rates for Donor Insemination According to Ovulatory Function and Tubal Status.  Fertil Steril 48:1051-1054, 1987.
  22. Kovacs G, Baker G, Burger H, et al:  Artificial Insemination with Cryopreserved Donor Semen:  A Decade of Experience.  Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 95:354-360, 1988.
  23. Strong C, Schinfeld JS:  The Single Woman ad Artificial Insemination by Donor.  J Reprod Med 29:293-299, 1984.
  24. McGuire M, Alexander NJ:  Artificial Insemination of Single Women.  Fertil Steril 43:182-184, 1985.
  25. Wendland CL, Byrn F, Hill C:  Donor Insemination :  A Comparison of Lesbian Couples, Heterosexual Couples and Single Women.  Fertil Steril 65:764-770, 1996.
  26. 2001 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates:  National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.  December, 2003.
  27. Hill GA, Bryan S, Herbert CM, et al:  Complications of Pregnancy in Infertile Couples:  Routine Treatment vs. Assisted Reproduction.  Obstet Gynecol 75:790-794, 1999. 
  28. Lipitz S, Seidman DS, Alkalay M, et al:  The Effect of Fertility Drugs and In vitro Methods on the Outcome of 106 Triplet Pregnancies.  Fertil Steril 60:1031-1034, 1993.
  29. Schiev LA, Peterson HB, Meikle SF, et al:  Live-Birth Rates and Multiple-Birth Risk Using In Vitro Fertilization.  JAMA 282:1832-1838, 1999. 
  30. Contribution of Assisted Reproductive Technology and Ovulation-Inducing Drugs to Triplet and High-Order Multiple Births – United States, 1980-1997.  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.  49:535-538, June 23, 2000.
  31. Hazekamp J, Bergh C, Wennerholm U-B, et al:  Avoiding Multiple Pregnancies in ART:  Considerations of New Strategies.  Hum Reprod 15:1217-1219, 2000.
  32. Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ:  Triplet Births in the United States:  An Epidemic of High-Risk Pregnancies.  J Reprod Med 47:259-265, 2002.
  33. Nowak E, Blickstein I, Papiernik E, et al:  Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancies:  Do They Complicate Perinatal Care?  J Reprod Med 48:601-609, 2003. 
  34. Lynch A, McDuffie R, Murphy J, et al:  Assisted Reproductive Interventions and Multiple Birth.  Obstet Gynecol 97:195-200, 2001.
  35. Nijs M, Geerts L, Roosendaal EV:  Prevention of Multiple Pregnancies in an In Vitro Fertilization Program.  Fertil Steril 59:1245-1250, 1993. 
  36. Albano C, Platteau P, Nogueira D, et al:  Avoidance of Multiple Pregnancies after Ovulation Induction by Supernumerary Preovulatory Follicular Reduction.  Fertil Steril 76:820-822, 2001.
  37. Brandes JM, Itskovitz J, Temor-Tritsch IE, et al:  Reduction of the Number of Embryos in a Multiple Pregnancy:  Quintuplet to Triplet.  Fertil Steril 48:326-327, 1987.
  38. Shalev J, Frenkel Y, Goldenberg M, et al:  Selective Reduction in Multiple Gestations:  Pregnancy Outcome after Transvaginal and Transabdominal Needle-Guided Procedures.  Fertil Steril 52:416-420, 1989.
  39. Papiernik E, Grange G, Zeitlin J:  Should Multi-Fetal Pregnancy Reduction be Used for Prevention of Pre-term Deliveries in Triplet or High Order Multiple Pregnancies?  J Perinat Med 26:365-370, 1998. 
  40. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome.  The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.  Fertil Steril 80:1309-1314, 2003.
  41. Dessole S, Rubattu G, Ambrosini G, et al:  Blood Loss Following Non-Complicated Transvaginal Ooocyte Retrieval for In VitroFertilization.  Fertil Steril 76:205-206, 2001. 
  42. Meaker SR:  Ovarian Resection for the Relief of Sterility.  Fertil Steril 1:293-305, 1950.
  43. MacLeod SC, Milton DM, Parker AS, et al:  Experience with Induction of Ovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108:814-823, 1970. 
  44. Buyalos RP, Lee CT:  Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:  Pathophysiology and Outcome with In Vitro Fertilization.  Fertil Steril 65:1-10, 1996.
  45. Child TJ, Abdul-Jalil AK, Guleki B, et al:  In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Oocytes from Unstimulated Normal Ovaries, Polycystic Ovaries and Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 76:936-942, 2001. 
  46. Jones HW, Rock JA:  Reparative and Constructive Surgery of the Female Genital Tract.  Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, 1983.
  47. Barnhart K, Dunsmoor-Su R, Coutfifaris C:  The Effect of Endometriosis on In Vitro Fertilization.  Fertil Steril 77:1148-1155, 2002.
  48. Gomel V:  Salpingostomy by Microsurgery.  Fertil Steril 29:380-387, 1978.
  49. Stewart CR, Cooke ID:  Pregnancy Following Infertility.  Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1:449-475, 1974.
  50. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al:  Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation.  JAMA 211:791-797, 1970.
  51. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation.  Followup of Pregnancies in Children Born after Clomiphene Therapy.  JAMA 220:1329-1333, 1972. 
  52. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al:  Preeclampsia in Pregnancies from Donor Inseminations.  J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983.
  53. Varma TR, Patel RH:  Outcome of Pregnancy Following Investigation and Treatment of Infertility.  Int J Gynaecol Obstet 25:113-120, 1987.
  54. Varma TR, Patel RH, Bhathenia RK:  Outcome of Pregnancy After Infertility.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 67:115-119, 1988.
  55. Williams MA, Goldman MV, Mittendorf R, et al:  Subfertility and the Risk of Low Birth Weight.  Fertil Steril 56:668-671, 1991
  56. Smith GN, Walker M, Tessier JL, et al:  Increased Incidence of Preeclampsia in Women Conceiving by Intrauterine Insemination with Donor vs. Partner Sperm for Treatment of Primary Infertility.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 178:417-418, 1998.
  57. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al:  Preeclampsia in Pregnancy from Donor Inseminations.  J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983. 
  58. Salha O, Sharma V, Dada T, et al:  The Influence of Donating Gametes on the Incidence of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.  Hum Reprod 14:2268-2273, 1999.
  59. Serour GI, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al:  Complications of Medically-Assisted Conception in 3,500 Cycles.  Fertil Steril 70:638-642, 1998.
  60. Zuppa AA, Maragliano G, Scapillati ME, et al:  Neonatal Outcome of Spontaneous and Assisted Twin Pregnancies.  Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Bio 95:68-72, 2001.
  61. Tan S-L, Doyle P, Campbell S, et al:  Obstetric Outcome of In VitroFertilization Pregnancies Compared with Normally Conceived Pregnancies.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:778-784, 1992. 
  62. Seoud MA-F, Toner JP, Kruethoff C, et al:  Outcome of Twin, Triplet and Quadruplet in In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancies:  The Norfolk Experience.  Fertil Steril 58:827-834, 1992.
  63. Doyle P, Beral V, Maconochie N:  Preterm Delivery, Low Birth Weight and Small-for-Gestational-Age in Live Born Singleton Babies Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization.  Hum Reprod 7:425-428, 1992. 
  64. Fisch B, Harel L, Kaplan B, et al:  Neonatal Assessment of Babies Conceived by In Vitro Fertilization.  J Perinat 17:473-476, 1997.
  65. Tough SC, Greene CA, Svenson LW, et al:  Effects of In VitroFertilization on Low Birth Weight, Pre-term Delivery and Multiple Birth.  J Pediatr 136:618-622, 2000. 
  66. Schiev LA, Meikle SF, Ferre C, et al:  Low and Very Low Birth Weight in Infants Conceived with Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology.  N Engl J Med 346:731-737, 2002.
  67. Reubinof BE, Samueloff A, Ben-Haim M, et al:  Is the Obstetric Outcome of In Vitro Fertilized Singleton Gestations Different from Natural Ones?  A Controlled Study.  Fertil Steril 67:1077-1083, 1997. 
  68. French In Vitro National:  Pregnancies and Births Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization:  French National Registry, Analysis of Data 1986-1990.  Fertil Steril 64:746-756, 1995.
  69. Lynch A, McDuffey R, Murphy J, et al:  Preeclampsia and Multiple Gestation:  The Role of Assisted Reproductive Technologies.  Obstet Gynecol 99:445-451, 2002. 
  70. McFaul PB, Patel N, Mills J:  An Audit of the Obstetric Outcome of 148 Consecutive Pregnancies from Assisted Conception:  Implications for Neonatal Services.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:820-825, 1993.
  71. Stromberg B, Dahlquist G, Ericson A, et al:  Neurological Sequelae in Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization:  A Population-Based Study.  Lancet 359:461-465, 2002. 
  72. Macas E, Imthurn B, Keller PJ:  Increased Incidence of Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Spermatazoa Injected into Human Oocytes by ICSI.  Hum Reprod 16:115-120, 2001.
  73. Aboulghar H, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al:  A Prospective Controlled Study of Karyotyping for 430 Consecutive Babies Conceived Through Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.  Fertil Steril 76:249-253, 2001. 
  74. Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C, et al:  The Risk of Major Birth Defects after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and In VitroFertilization.  N Engl J Med 346:725-730, 2002.
  75. Sutcliffe AG, Taylor B, Saunders K, et al:  Outcome in the Second Year of Life after In Vitro Fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection:  A UK Case-Controlled Study.  Lancet 357:2080-2084, 2001. 
  76. Wennerholm U-B, Bergh C, Hamburger L, et al:  Obstetric Outcome of Pregnancies Following ICSI, Classified According to the Sperm Origin and Quality.  Hum Reprod 15:1189-1194, 2000.
  77. Bonduelle M, Liebaers I, Deketelare V, et al:  Neonatal Data on a Cohort of 2889 Infants Born after ICSI (1991-1999) and of 2995 Infants Born after IVF (1983-1999).  Hum Reprod 17:671-694, 2002.
  78. Kovalevsky G, Rinauedo P, Coutifaris C:  Do Assisted Reproductive Technologies Cause Adverse Fetal Outcomes?  Fertil Steril 79:1270-1271, 2003.
  79. Salvatore P, Gariboldi S, Offidani A, et al:  Psychopathology, Personality, and Marital Relationship in Patients Undergoing In VitroFertilization Procedures.  Fertil Steril 75:1119-1125, 2001. 
  80. Thadani VM:  Clues from Research into Cross-Species Fertilization.  Contemp OB/GYN 20:203-209, 1982.
  81. Corson SL, Batzer FR, Go KJ, et al:  Correlations Between the Human Sperm-Hamster Egg Penetration Assay and In VitroFertilization Results.  J Reprod Med  32:879-887, 1987. 
  82. Margalioth EJ, Navot D, Laufer N, et al:  Correlation Between the Zona-Free Hamster Egg Sperm Penetration Assay and Human In Vitro Fertilization.  Fertil Steril 45:665-670, 1986.
  83. ACOG Committee Opinion.  Committee on Ethics.  Pre-Embryo Research:  History, Scientific Background and Ethical Considerations.  136, April 1994. 
  84. Hoffman DI, Zellman GL, Fair CC, et al:  Cryo-Preserved Embryos in the United States and Their Availability for Research.  Fertil Steril 79:1063-1069, 2003.
  85. Beyler SA, Meyer WR, Fritz MA:  Disposition of Extra Embryos.  Fertil Steril 74:213-215, 2000. 
  86. Sauer MV:  Indecent Proposal:  $5,000 is not “Reasonable Compensation” for Oocyte Donors.  Fertil Steril 71:7-8, 1999.
  87. Reuters.  Babies from Thawed Ovarian Tissue by 2009 – Experts.  June 30, 1999. 
  88. Grady D:  Pregnancy Created with Egg Nucleus of Infertile Women. October 14, 2003.
  89. Neergaard L:  Ethics Expert Supports Sex Selection in IVF.  Associated Press.  September 29, 2001.
  90. Paulson RJ, Thornton MH, Francis MM, et al:  Successful Pregnancy in a 63-Year-Old Woman.  Fertil Steril 67:949-951, 1997.
  91. Paulson RJ, Boostanfar R, Saadat P, et al:  Pregnancy in the Sixth Decade of Life.  Obstetric Outcomes in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age.  JAMA 288:2320-2323, 2002. 
  92. Sauer MV:  Motherhood at Any Age?  Egg Donation was not Intended for Everyone.  Fertil Steril 69:187-188, 1998.
  93. Ohl DA, Park J, Cohen C, et al:  Procreation after Death or Mental Incompetence:  Medical Advance or Technology Gone Awry?  Fertil Steril 66:889-895, 1996.
  94. Buster JA, Carson SA:  Taking a Results-Oriented Approach to Infertility.  Contemp OB/GYN, pp 100-126, October 1998.
  95. Leese HJ, Donnay I, Thompson JG:  Human Assisted Conception:  A Cautionary Tale.  Lessons From Domestic Animals.  Hum Reprod. 15:184-202,1998.
  96. Rowland R:  Social Implications of Reproductive Technology:  Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8:189-205, 1984.


C. Medical Risks of Infertility

  1. Thomas EJ, Campbell, IG:  Evidence that Endometriosis Behaves in a Malignant Manner.  Gynecol Obstet Invest 50 (Suppl 1): 2-10, 2000.
  2. Dmowski WP, Rana N, Jafari N:  Post Laparoscopic Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Unrecognized Nodular Endometriosis of the Terminal Ileum.  J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 8: 161-166, 2001.
  3. Henkel A, Christensen B, Schinler AE:  Endometriosis:  A Clinically Malignant Disease.  Euro J Obstet Gynecol Repro Bio 82: 209-211, 1999.
  4. Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Nasserbakht F, Rosati M, Seidman DS: Urinary Tract Endometriosis Treated by Laparoscopy. Fertil Steril 66: 920-924, 1996.
  5. Zanetta G, Web MJ and Segura GW:  Ureteral Endometriosis Diagnosed at Ureteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol 91: 857-859, 1998.
  6. Nackley AC, Jeko TR:  Ureteral Displacement Associated with Pelvic Peritoneal Defects and Endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7: 131-133, 2000.
  7. Maxson WS, Hill GA, Herbert CM, Kaufman AJ, Pittaway DE, Daniell JF, Winfield AC, Wentz AC:  Ureteral Abnormalities in Women with Endometriosis.  Fertil Steril 46: 1159-1161, 1986.
  8. Loverro G, Cormio G, Greco P, Altomare D, Putignano G, Slevaggi L:  Perforation of the Sigmoid Colon During Pregnancy:  A Rare Complication of Endometriosis.  J Gynecol Surg 15: 155-157, 1999.
  9. Halme J, Chafe W, Currie JL:  Endometriosis with Massive Ascites.  Obstet Gynecol 65: 591-592, 1985.
  10. Samora-Mata J, Feste JR:  Endometriosis Ascites:  A Case Report. JSLS 3: 229-231, 1999.
  11. Mendez LE, Echt L, Rock JA, Horowitz IR:  Pulmonary Endometriosis:  A Clinical Review.  J Pelv Surg 6: 130-135, 2000.
  12. Seltzer VL, Benjamin F:  Treatment of Pulmonary Endometriosis with a Long-Acting GnRH Agonist.  Obstet Gynecol 76: 929-931, 1990.
  13. Torkelson SJ, Lee RA, Hildahl DB:  Obstet Gynecol 71: 473-477, 1988.
  14. Nezhat C, Seidman DS, Nezhat F, Nezhat C:  Laparoscopic Surgical Management of Diaphragmatic Endometriosis. Fertil Steril 69: 1048-1055, 1998.
  15. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Portuese A, Borruto F, Dorta M:  Transrectal Ultrasonography in the Assessment of Rectal Vaginal Endometriosis.  Obstet Gynecol 91: 444-448, 1998.
  16. Thorton JG, Morley S, Lilleyman J, Onwude JL, Currie I, Crompton AC:  The Relationship Between Laparoscopic Disease, Pelvic Pain and Infertility: An Unbiased Assessment.  Uro J Obstet Gynecol Repro Bio 74: 57-52, 1997.
  17. Halstead L, Pepping P, Dmowski WP:  The Woman with Endometriosis:  Ignored, Dismissed and Devalued – A Research Pilot Study Presented at the Second International Symposium on Endometriosis.  The Endometriosis Association, 1989.
  18. Chronic Pelvic Pain.  ACOG Technical Bulletin.  No. 223, May.  The Committee on Technical Bulletins of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1996.
  19. Ling FW:  Randomized Control Trial of Depo Leuprolide in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain and Clinically Suspected Endometriosis.  Obstet Gynecol 93: 51-58, 1999.
  20. Koninckx PR, et al:  Suggestive Evidence that Pelvic Endometriosis is a Progressive Disease, Whereas Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis is Associated with Pelvic Pain.  Fertil Steril 55: 759-765, 1991.
  21. Carter JE:  Hysteroscopic and Laparoscopic Findings in Chronic Pelvic Pain. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2: 4, 1994.
  22. Ripps BA, Martin DC:  Focal Pelvic Tenderness, Pelvic Pain, Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis.  J Reprod Med 36: 470-472, 1991.
  23. Carter JE, Trotter JP:  GnRH Analogs in the Treatment of Endometriosis:  Clinical and Economic Considerations.  Female Patient. 20: 13-20, 1995.
  24. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Bocciolone L, DiNola G, Parazzini F: Pain Symptoms Associated with Endometriosis.  Obstet Gynecol 79: 767-769, 1992.
  25. Popora MG, Koninckx PR, Piazze J, Natili M, Colagrande S, Cosmi EV:  Correlation Between Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain.  J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 6: 429-434, 1999.
  26. Chapron C, Dubuisson J-B, Tardif D, Fritel X, Lacroix S, Kinkel K, Dumontier I, Dousset B, Vacher-Lavenu M-C:  Retroperitoneal Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain:  Results of Laparoscopic Uterosacral Ligament Resection According to the rAFS Classification in Histopathologic Results.  J Gynecol Surg 14: 51-58, 1998.
  27. Dmowski WP, Lesniewicz R, Rana N, Pepping P, Noursalehi M:  Changing Trends in the Diagnosis of Endometriosis:  A Comparative Study of Women with Pelvic Endometriosis Presenting Chronic Pelvic Pain or Infertility.  Fertil Steril 67: 238-243, 1997.
  28. Reiter RC, Gambone JC:  Demographic and Historic Variables in Women with Idiopathic Chronic Pelvic Pain.  Obstet Gynecol 75: 428-432, 1990.
  29. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Dysmenorrhea.  ADS:  The Female Patient  10: 79-80, 1985.
  30. Stovall DW, Bowser LM, Archer DF, Guzick DS:  Fertil Steril 68: 13-18, 1997.
  31. Redwine DB:  Ovarian Endometriosis:  A Marker for More Extensive Pelvic and Intestinal Disease.  Fertil Steril 72: 310-315, 1999.
  32. Szucs RA, Turner MA:  Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement by Gynecologic Diseases. Radiographics 16: 1251-1270, 1996.
  33. Mathias JR, Clench MH:  Relationship of Reproductive Hormones and Neuromuscular Disease of the Gastrointestinal Tract.  Dig Dis 16: 3-13, 1998.
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  256. Harlap S:  Ovulation Induction and Congenital Malformations.  Lancet 2:961, 1976.
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  259. Kurachi K, Aono T, Minagawa J, et al:  Congenital Malformation of Newborn Infants after Clomiphene-Induced Ovulation.  Fertil Steril 40:187, 1983. 
  260. Asch RH, Greenblatt RB:  Update on the Safety and Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate as a Therapeutic Agent.  J Reprod Med 17:175, 1976.
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  262. Donini P, Puzzvoli D, Montezemolo R:  Purification of Gonadotropin from Human Menopausal Urine.  Acta Endocrinol 45:321, 1964.
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  266. Nakai Y, Plant TM, Hess DL, et al:  On the Sites of the Negative and Positive Feedback Actions of Estradiol in the Control of Gonadotropin Secretion in the Rhesus Monkey.  Endocrinology 102:1008, 1978.
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  268. Leyendecker G, Wildt L, Hansmann M:  Pregnancies Following Chronic Intermittent (Pulsatile) Administration of Gn-Rh by Means of a Portable Pump (“Zyklomat”) – A New Approach to the Treatment of Infertility and Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab.  51:1214, 1980.
  269. Dodge ST, Strickler, Keller DW:  Ovulation Induction with Low Doses of Clomiphene Citrate.  Obstet Gynecol 67:63S-65S, 1986.
  270. Shalev J, Goldenberg M, Kukia E, et al:  Comparison of Five Clomiphene Citrate Dosage Regimens:  Follicular Recruitment and Distribution in the Human Ovary.  Fertil Steril 52:560-563, 1989.
  271. Barrett CTH, Hakim CA:  Low-Dosage Clomiphene Therapy in the Treatment of Infertility Due to Defective Ovulation.  S Afr Med J 48:1456-1458, 1974.
  272. Biljan MM, Mahutte NG, Tulandi T, et al:  Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Trial of the Correlation Between Time of Administration and Anti-Estrogenic Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on Reproductive End Organs.  Fertil Steril 71:633-638, 1999.
  273. Daley DC, Walters CA, Soto-Albors CE, et al:  A Randomized Study of Dexamethasone and Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate.  Fertil Steril 41:844-848, 1984.
  274. Lobo RA, Paul W, March CM, et al:  Clomiphene and Dexamethasone in Women Unresponsive to Clomiphene Alone.  Obstet Gynecol 60:497-501, 1982.
  275. Isaacs JD, Lincoln SR, Cowan BD:  Extended Clomiphene Citrate (CC) and Prednisone for the Treatment of Chronic Anovulation Resistant to CC alone.  Fertil Steril 67:641-643, 1997.
  276. Soto-Albors C, Daly DC, Ying Y-K:  Efficacy of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins as Therapy for Abnormal Cervical Mucus.  Fertil Steril 51:58-62, 1989. 
  277. Filicori M, Cognigni GE, Tabarelli C, et al:  Stimulation and Growth of Antral Ovarian Follicles by Selective LH Activity Administration in Women.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1156-1161, 2002. 
  278. Filicori M, Cognigni GE, Taraborreli S, et al:  Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Pregnancy after Low-Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Alone to Support Ovarian Folliculogenesis.  Fertil Steril 78:414-416, 2002.
  279. Maxson WS, Pittaway DE, Herbert CM, et al:  Antiestrogenic Effect of Clomiphene Citrate:  Correlation with Serum Estradiol Concentrations.  Fertil Steril 42:356-359, 1984.
  280. Massai MR, de Ziegler D, Lesorbre V, et al:  Clomiphene Citrate Affects Cervical Mucus and Endometrial Morphology Independently of the Changes in Plasma Hormonal Levels Induced by Multiple Follicular Recruitment.  Fertil Steril 59:1179-1186, 1993.
  281. Neely JL, Abate M, Swinker M, et al:  The Effect of Doxycycline on Serum Levels of Ethinyl Estradiol, Norethindrone And Endogenous Progesterone.  Obstet Gynecol 77:416-420, 1991.
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  287. Check JH, Diettreich C, Nowroozi K, et al:  Comparison of Various Therapies for the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome.  Int J Fertil 37:33-40, 1992.
  288. Gompel A, Mauvais-Jarvis P:  Induction of Ovulation with Pulsatile GnRH and Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.  Hum Reprod 3:473-477, 1988.
  289. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.  Use of Clomiphene Citrate in Women.  Fertil Steril 80:1302-1308, 2003.  
  290. Purvin V:  Visual Disturbance Secondary to Clomiphene Citrate.  Arch Ophthalmol 1130:482-484, 1995.
  291. Nakamura Y, Ono M, Yoshida Y, et al:  The Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on the Endometrial Thickness of an Echogenic Pattern of the Endometrium.  Fertil Steril 67:256-260, 1997.
  292. Eden JA, Place J, Carter GD, et al:  The Effect of Clomiphene Citrate on Follicular Phase Increase on Endometrial Thickness and Uterine Volume.  Obstet Gynecol 73:187-190, 1989.
  293. Check JH, Diettreich C, Luri D:  The Effect of Consecutive Cycles of Clomiphene Citrate on Endometrial Thickness and Echo Pattern.  Obstet Gynecol 86:341-345, 1995. 
  294. Yagel S, Ben-Chetrit A, Anteby E, et al:  The Effect of ethinyl estradiol on Endometrial Thickness and Uterine Volume During Ovulation Induction by Clomiphene Citrate.  Fertil Steril 57:33-36, 1992.
  295. Gerli S, Gholami H, Manna A, et al:  Use of Ethinyl Estradiol to Reverse the Anti-Estrogenic Effects of Clomiphene citrate in Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination:  A Comparative, Randomized Study.  Fertil Steril 73:85-89, 2000.
  296. American Society for Reproductive Medicine.  Practice Committee Report:  A Technical Bulletin.  Induction of Ovarian Follicle Development and Ovulation with Exogenous Gonadotropins.  American Society for Reproductive Medicine,  Birmingham, AL, 1998.
  297. Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al:  Sensory Neuropathy from Pyridoxine Abuse:  A New Mega-Vitamin Syndrome.  N Engl J Med 309:445-448, 1983.
  298. Parry GJ, Bredesen DE:  Sensory Neuropathy with Low-Dose Pyridoxine.  Neurology 35:1466-1468, 1985.
  299. Berger AR, Schaumburg HH, Schroeder C, et al:  Dose Response, Coasting, and Differential Fiber Vulnerability in Human Toxic Neuropathy:  A Prospective Study of Pyridoxine Neurotoxicity.  Neurology 42:1367-1370, 1992. 
  300. Fukushima T, Tajima C, Fukuma K, et al:  Tamoxifen in the Treatment of Infertility Associated with Luteal Phase Deficiency.  Fertil Steril 37:755-761, 1982.
  301. Messinis IE, Nillius SJ:  Comparison Between the Tamoxifen and Clomiphene for Induction of Ovulation.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 61:377-379, 1982. 
  302. Fukushima T, Maeyama M:  Action of Tamoxifen on Folliculogenesis in the Menstrual Cycle of Infertile Patients.  Fertil Steril 40:210-214, 1983.
  303. Tajima C, Fukushima T:  Endocrine Profiles in Tamoxifen-Induced Ovulatory Cycles.  Fertil Steril 40:23-30, 1983. 
  304. Rouman FJME, Doesburg WH, Rolland R:  Treatment of Infertile Women with a Deficient Postcoital Test with Two Antiestrogens:  Clomiphene and Tamoxifen.  Fertil Steril 41:237-243, 1984.
  305. Tsuiki A, Uehara S, Kyono K, et al:  Induction of Ovulation with an Estrogen Antagonist, Tamoxifen.  Tohoku J Exp Med 144:21-31, 1984.
  306. Tajima C:  Endocrine Profiles in Tamoxifen-Induced Conception Cycles.  Fertil Steril 42:548-553, 1984.
  307. Tajima C:  Luteotropic Effects of Tamoxifen in Infertile Women.  Fertil Steril 42:223-227, 1984. 
  308. Tajima C:  Tamoxifen in the Treatment of Infertile Patients Associated with Inadequate Luteal Phase.  Fertil Steril 41:470-472, 1984.
  309. Borenstein R, Shoham Z, Yemini M, et al:  Tamoxifen Treatment in Women with Failure of Clomiphene citrate Therapy.  Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 29:173-175, 1989.
  310. Boostanfar R, Jain JK, Mishell DR:  A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Clomiphene citrate with Tamoxifen Citrate for Ovulation Induction.  Fertil Steril 75:1024-1026, 2001.
  311. Goto S, Takakura K, Nakanishi K, et al:  Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate and Cyclofenil for Infertile Women with Normal Ovulatory Cycles.  Fertil Steril 76:409-411, 2001.  
  312. Yong EL, Glasier A, Hillier H, et al:  Effect of Cyclofenil on Hormonal Dynamics, Follicular Development and Cervical Mucus in Normal and Oligomenorrheic Women.  Hum Reprod 7:39-43, 1992.
  313. Ludwig M, Doody KG, Doody KM:  Use of Recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Ovulation Induction.  Fertil Steril 79:1051-1059, 2003.
  314. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF:  Use of an Aromatase Inhibitor for Induction of Ovulation in Patients with an Inadequate Response to Clomiphene Citrate.  Fertil Steril 75:305-309, 2001.
  315. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF:  Aromatase Inhibitors in Ovulation Induction.  In:  Aromatase:  Update and New Roles in Reproductive Disease.  Carr BR, Bulun SE (Eds) Sem Reprod Med 22:61-78, 2004. 
  316. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF:  Aromatase Inhibition Improves Ovarian Response to Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Poor Responders.  Fertil Steril 77:776-780, 2002.  In this preliminary report, we demonstrate a potential benefit of aromatase inhibition for improving ovarian response to FSH in poor responders.
  317. Mitwally MF, Casper RF:  Using Aromatase Inhibitors to Induce Ovulation in Breast CA Survivors.  Contemporary OB/GYN.  49:73-83, 2004.
  318. Healey S, Tan SL, Tulandi T, et al:  Effects of Letrozole on Superovulation with Gonadotropins in Women Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination.  Fertil Steril 80:1325-1329, 2003.
  319. Kilic-Okman T, Kucuk M, Altaner S:  Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole in Clomiphene Citrate on Ovarian Follicles, Endometrium and Hormone Levels in the Rat.  Fertil Steril 80:1330-1332, 2003. 
  320. Casper RF:  Letrozole:  Ovulation or Superovulation? Fertil Steril 80:1335-1337, 2003.
  321. Tourgeman DE:  Ovulation Induction is not the Same as Superovulation:  The Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors.  80:1333-1334, 2003.
  322. Healey S, Tan SL, Biljan MM, et al:  Letrozole and Gonadotropins:  What is the Ideal Patient Protocol?  Fertil Steril 80:1339, 2003.
  323. Bulun SE:  Ovulation Induction of Women with Infertility:  A New Indication for Aromatase Inhibitors.  Fertil Steril 80:1338, 2003. 
  324. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF:  SingleDose Administration of the Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole:  A Simple and Convenient Effective Method of Ovulation Induction.  Fertil Steril 76 (Suppl 1):594-595, 2001.
  325. Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyer J, et al:  Characteristics Relating to Ovarian Cancer Risks:  Collaborative Analysis of 12 U.S. Case-Controlled Studies.  II.  Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in White Women.  Am J Epidem 136:1184-1203, 1992.
  326. Rossing MA, Daling JR, Weiss NS, et al:  Ovarian Tumors in a Cohort of Infertile Women.  N Engl J Med 331:771-776, 1994.  This is a second article which introduced the topic.  Prolonged use of clomiphene may increase the risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor.
  327. Potashnik G, Lerner-Geva L, Genkin L, et al:  Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Breast and Ovarian Cancers:  Results of a Long-Term Followup Study.  Fertil Steril 71:853-859, 1999.
  328. Modan B, Ron E, Lerner-Giva L, et al:  Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Infertile Women.  Am J Epidem 147:1038-1042, 1998.
  329. Venn A, Watson L, Lumley J, et al:  Breast and Ovarian Cancer Incidence After Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization.  Lancet 346:995-1000, 1995. 
  330. Ness RB, Cramer DW, Goodman MT, et al:  Infertility, Infertility Drugs and Ovarian Cancer:  A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies.  Am J Epidemiol 155:217-224, 2002.


E. Disorders of Human Ovulation

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  2. Fleischer AC, Daniell J, Rodier J, Lindsay AM, James AF, Jr:  Sonographic Monitoring of Ovarian Follicular Development.  J Clin Ultrasound, 1981; 9:275-280.
  3. Lenz S:  Ultrasonic Study of Follicular Maturation, Ovulation and Development of Corpus Luteum During Normal Menstrual Cycles.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 1985; 64:15-19.
  4. Queenan JT, O’Brien GD, Baines LM, Simpson J, Collins NP, Campbell S:  Ultrasound Scanning of Ovaries to Detect Ovulation in Women. Fertil Steril, 1980; 34:99-105.
  5. Nitschke-Dabelstein S, Hackeloer BJ, Sturm G:  Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation Observed by Ultrasonography.  Ultrasound Med Biol, 1980; 7:33-39.
  6. Koninckx PR, Renaer M, Brosens IA:  Origin of Peritoneal Fluid of Women:  An Ovarian Exudation Product.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1980; 87:177-183.
  7. Pierson RA, Martinuk SD, Chizen DR, Simpson CW: Ultrasonic Visualization of Human Ovulation. In Evers JHL and Heineman MJ, Eds. From Ovulation to Implantation. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, 1990; 73-79.
  8. Hilgers TW, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Ellis RL, Yaksich PJ:  Sonographic Definition of the Empty Follicle Syndrome, J Ultrasound Med, 1989; 8:411-416.
  9. Hilgers TW, Kimball CR, Keck SJ, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Yaksich PJ:  Assessment of the Empty Follicle Syndrome by Transvaginal Sonography.  J Ultrasound Med, 1992; 11:313-316.
  10. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM:  The Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System: A Standarized, Case Management Approach to Teaching.  Book I – Basic Teaching Skills. 2nd Edition.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, NE, 2002.
  11. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, Cavanagh D:  Natural Family Planning I.  The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol, 1978;  52:575-582.
  12. Sakamoto C: Sonographic Criteria of Basic Changes in Human Endometrial Tissue.  Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 1985;  23:7-12.
  13. Eissa MK, Sawers RS, Docker MF, Lynch SS, Newton JR: Characteristics and Incidence of Dysfunctional Ovulation Patterns Detected by Ultrasound. Fertil Steril 1987; 47:603-612.
  14. Ying Y-K, Daly DC, Randolph JF, Soto-Albers CE, Maier DB, Schmidt CL, Riddick DH: Ultrasonographic Monitoring of Follicular Growth for Luteal Phase Defects. Fertil Steril, 1987; 48:433-436.
  15. Marik J, Hulka J: Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome: A Subtle Cause of Infertility. Fertil Steril 1978; 29:270-274.
  16. Kerin JF, Kirby C, Morris D, McEvoy M, Ward B, Cox LW: Incidence of the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Phenomenon in Cycling Women. Fertil Steril 1983; 40:620-626.
  17. Katz E: The Luteinized Unruptured Follicle and other Ovulatory Dysfunctions. Fertil Steril, 1988; 50:839-850.
  18. Lewinthal D, Furman A, Blankstein J, Corenblum B, Shaler J, Lunenfeld B:  Subtle Abnormalities in Follicular Development and Hormonal Profile in Women with Unexplained Infertility. Fertil Steril 1986; 46:833-839.
  19. Haines CJ, Emes AL: The Relationship Between Follicle Diameter, Fertilization Rate, and Microscopic Embryo Quality. Fertil Steril 1991; 55:205-207.
  20. Coulam CB, Bustillo M, Schulman JD:  Empty Follicle Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 1986; 46:1153-1155.
  21. Tsuiki A, Rose BI, Hung TT:  Steroid Profiles of Follicular Fluids from a Patient with Empty Follicle Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 1988; 49:104-107.
  22. Zandt-Stastny D, Thorsen MK, Middleton WD, Aiman J, Zion A, McAsey M, Haroski:  Inability of Sonography to Detect Imminent Ovulation.  A J R 1989; 152:91-95.
  23. Craft I, Shelton K, Yovich J, Smith D:  Ovum Retention in the Human. Fertil Steril, 1980; 34:537-541.
  24. Stanger JD, Yovich JL: Failure of Human Oocyte Release at Ovulation. Fertil Steril, 1984: 41: 827-832.
  25. Hilgers TW:  A Sonographic Classification System for Disorders of Human Ovulation.  In:  Hilgers TW:  The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, Chapter 18, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE,  2004.
  26. Hackeloer BJ, Fleming R, Robinson HP, Adam AH, Coutts JRT:  Correlation of Ultrasonic and Endocrinologic Assessment of Human Follicular Development.  Am J Obstet Gynec 135: 122-128, 1979.
  27. Polan ML, Totora M, Caldwell BV, DeCherney AH, Haseltine FP, Kase N:  Abnormal Ovarian Cycles as Diagnosed by Ultrasound and Serum Estradiol Levels. Fertil Steril 37:342-247, 1982.
  28. Marrs RP, Varqyas JM, March CM:  Correlation of Ultrasonic and Endocrinologic Measurements in Human Menopausal Gonadotropin Therapy.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 145:417-421, 1983.
  29. Petsos P, Chandler C, Oak M, Ratcliffe WA, Wood R, Anderson DC:  The Assessment of Ovulation by a Combination of Ultrasound and Detailed Serial Hormone Profiles in 35 Women with Long-standing Unexplained Infertility. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 22:739-751, 1985.
  30. Lenz S:  Ultrasonic Study of Follicular Maturation, Ovulation and Development of Corpus Luteum During Normal Menstrual Cycles.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand  64:15-19, 1985.
  31. Tsuiki A, Rose BI, Hung TT:  Steroid Profiles of Follicular Fluids from a Patient with Empty Follicle Syndrome. Fertil Steril 49: 104-107, 1988.
  32. Finn MM, Gosling JP, Tallon DF, Joyce LA, Meehan FP, Fottrell PF:  Follicular Growth and Corpus Luteum Function in Women with Unexplained Infertility Monitored by Ultrasonography and Measurement of Daily Salivary Progesterone.  Gynecol Endocrinol 3:297-308, 1989.
  33. Kurjak A, Jurkovic D: Ultrasonic Monitoring of Follicular Growth and Ovulation in Spontaneous and Stimulated Cycles.  In: Kurjak A, Ed. Ultrasound and Infertility. Boca Raton: CRC Press 89-124, 1989.
  34. Scheenjes E, te Velde ER, Kremer J:  Inspection of the Ovaries and Steroids in Serum and Peritoneal Fluid at Various Time Intervals after Ovulation in Fertile Women: Implications for the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 54:38-41, 1990.
  35. Kupesic S, Kurjak A:  The Assessment of Normal and Abnormal Luteal Function by Transvaginal Color Doppler Sonography.  Am J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 72:83-87, 1997.
  36. Andreotti RF, Thompson GH, Janowitz W, Shapiro AG, Zusmer NR:  Endovaginal and Transabdominal Sonography of Ovarian Follicles.  J Ultrasound Med  8:555-560, 1989.
  37. Hamilton CJCM, Wetzels LCG, Evers JLH, Hoogland HJ, Muitjens A, de Haan J:  Follicle Growth Curves and Hormonal Patterns in Patients with the Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 43:541-548, 1985.
  38. Hamilton MPR, Fleming R, Coutts JRT, Macnaughton MC, Whitfield CR:  Luteal Cysts and Unexplained Infertility:  Biochemical and Ultrasonic Evaluation.  Fertil Steril 54:32-37, 1990.
  39. Huang K, Muechler EK, Bonfiglio TA:  Follicular Phase Treatment of Luteal Phase Defect with Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Infertile Women. Obstet Gynec 64:32-36, 1984.
  40. DiZerga GS, Hodgen GD:  Luteal Phase Dysfunction Infertility:  A Sequel to Aberrant Folliculogenesis. Fertil Steril 35:489-499, 1981.
  41. Bersha C, Broden H, Lundin K, Hamberger L:  Comparisons of Fertilization, Cleavage and Pregnancy Rates of Oocytes from Large and Small Follicle.  Hum Reprod 1998 Jul; 13(7):  1912-1915.
  42. Haines CJ, Emes AL:  The Relationship Between Follicle Diameter, Fertilization Rate, and Microscopic Embryo Quality.  Fertil Steril 1991; 55:205-207.
  43. Pierson RA, Martinuk SD, Chizen DR, Simpson CW:  Ultrasonic Visualization of Human Ovulation.  In Evers JHL and Heineman MJ, eds.  From Ovulation to Implantation.  Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990; 73-79.


F. Follicular and Luteal Phase Deficiencies

  1. Ogino K:  Ovulationstermin und Konceptionstermin.  Zbl Gynaek 54:464, 1930. 
  2. Knaus HH:  Eine Nue Methode Zur Bestimmung Des Ovulationsdenstermins Zbl Gynaek 53:2193, 1929.
  3. Rock J, Bartlett MK:  Biopsy Studies of Human Endometrium.  JAMA 2022-2028, June 12, 1937. 
  4. Brewer JI:  Studies of the Human Corpus Luteum.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 1048-1061, June 17, 1942.
  5. Jones GES:  Some Newer Aspects of the Management of Infertility.  JAMA 141:1123-1129, 1949.
  6. Noyes RW, Hertig AT, Rock J:  Dating the Endometrial biopsy.  Fertil Steril 1:3-25, 1950.
  7. Gillam JS:  Study of the Inadequate Secretion Phase Endometrium.  Fertil Steril 6:18-36, 1955. 
  8. Grant A, McBride WG, Moyes JM:  Luteal Phase Defects in Sterility.  Int J Fert 4:315-322, 1959.
  9. Jones GS:  The Luteal Phase Defect.  Fertil Steril 27:351-356, 1976.
  10. Wentz AC:  Endometrial Biopsy in the Evaluation of Infertility.  Fertil Steril 33:121-124, 1980.
  11. Rosenfeld DL, Chudow S, Bronson RA:  Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Inadequacy.  Obstet Gynecol 56:193-196, 1980. 
  12. Balasch J, Vanrell JA, Crues M, et al:  The Endometrial Biopsy for Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Deficiency.  Fertil Steril 44:699-701, 1985.
  13. Cumming DC, Honore LH, Scott JZ, et al:  The Late Luteal Phase in Infertile Women:  Comparison of Simultaneous Endometrial Biopsy and Progesterone Levels. Fertil Steril  43:715-719, 1985. 
  14. Shoupe D, Mishell DR, Lacarra M, et al:  Correlation of Endometrial Maturation with Four Methods of Estimating Day of Ovulation.  Obstet Gynecol 73:88-92, 1989.
  15. Johannisson E, Landgren B-M, Rohr HP, et al:  Endometrial Morphology and Peripheral Hormone Levels in Women with Regular Menstrual Cycles.  Fertil Steril 48:401-408, 1987. 
  16. Sahmay S, Oral E, Saridogan E, et al:  Endometrial Biopsy Findings in Infertility:  Analysis of 12,949 cases.  Int J Fertil 40:316-321, 1995.
  17. Balasch J, Creus M, Marquez M, et al:  The Significance of Luteal Phase Deficiency on Fertility:  A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach.  Hum Reprod 1:145-147, 1986.
  18. Batista MC, Cartledge TP, Zellmer AW, et al:  A Prospective Controlled Study of Luteal and Endometrial Abnormalities in an Infertile Population.  Fertil Steril 65:495-502, 1996.
  19. Scott RT, Snider RR, Stricklund DM, et al:  The Effect of Interobserver Variation in Dating Endometrial Histology in the Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Defects.  Fertil Steril 50:888-892, 1988.
  20. Li T-C, Dockery P, Rogers AW, et al:  How Precise is Histologic Dating of Endometrium Using the Standard Dating Criteria?  Fertil Steril 51:759-763, 1989.
  21. Gibson M, Badger GJ, Byrn F, et al:  Error in Histologic Dating of Secretory Endometrium:  Variance Component Analysis.  Fertil Steril 56:242-247, 1991.
  22. Scott RD, Snider RR, Bagnall JW, et al:  Evaluation of the Impact of Interobserver Variability on Endometrial Dating in the Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Defects. Fertil Steril 60:652-657, 1993.
  23. Sherman BM, Corenman SG:  Measurement of Serum LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone in Disorders of the Human Menstrual Cycle:  The Inadequate Luteal Phase.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39:145-149, 1974. 
  24. Goldstein D, Zuckerman H, Harpaz S, et al:  Correlation Between Estradiol and Progesterone in Cycles with Luteal Phase Deficiency.  Fertil Steril 37:348-354, 1982.
  25. Daya S, Ward S, Burrows E:  Progesterone Profiles in Luteal Phase Defect Cycles and Outcome of Progesterone Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:225-232, 1988. 
  26. Olive DL, Thomford PJ, Torres SE, et al:  Twenty-Four Hour Progesterone and Luteinizing Hormone Profiles in the Midluteal Phase of the Infertile Patient:  Correlation with Other Indicators of Luteal Phase Insufficiency.  Fertil Steril 51:587-592, 1989.
  27. Daya S:  Optimal Time in the Menstrual Cycle for Serum Progesterone Measurement to Diagnose Luteal Phase Defects.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1009-1011, 1989.
  28. Israel R, Mishell DR, Stone SC, et al:  Single Luteal Phase Serum Progesterone Assay as an Indicator of Ovulation.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 112:1043-1046, 1972.
  29. Shepard MK, Senturia YD:  Comparison of Serum Progesterone and Endometrial Biopsy for Confirmation of Ovulation and Evaluation of Luteal Function.  Fertil Steril 28:541-548, 1977. 
  30. Abraham GE, Maroulis GB, Marshall JR:  Evaluation of Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Function Using Measurements of Plasma Progesterone.  Obstet Gynecol 44:522-524, 1974.
  31. Jordan J, Craig K, Clifton DK, et al:  Luteal Phase Defect:  The Sensitivity and Specificity of Diagnostic Methods in Common Clinical Use.  Fertil Steril 62:54-62, 1994. 
  32. Fujimoto VY, Clifton DK, Cohen NL, et al:  Variability of Serum Prolactin and Progesterone Levels in Normal Women:  The Relevance of Single Hormone Measurements in the Clinical Setting.  Obstet Gynecol 76:71-78, 1990.
  33. Nakajima ST, Malloy MH, Oi RH, et al:  Clinical Evaluation of Luteal Function.  Obstet Gynecol 84:219-221, 1994. 
  34. Downs KA, Gibson M:  Basal Body Temperature Graph and the Luteal Phase Defect:  Fertil Steril 40:466-468, 1983.
  35. Zorn JR, Cedard L, Nessman, C, et al:  Delayed Endometrial Maturation in Women with Normal Progesterone Levels.  Gynecol Obstet Invest 17:157-162, 1984.
  36. Balasch J, vanRell JA:  Luteal Phase Deficiency:  An Inadequate Endometrial Response to Normal Hormone Stimulation.  Int J Fertil 31:368-371, 1986.
  37. Grunfeld L, Sandler B, Fox J, et al:  Luteal Phase Deficiency after Completely Normal Follicular and Periovulatory Phases.  Fertil Steril 52:919-923, 1989. 
  38. Davis, OK, Berkeley AS, Naus J, et al:  The Incidence of Luteal Phase Defect in Normal, Fertile Women, Determined by Serial Endometrial Biopsies.  Fertil Steril 51:582-586, 1989.
  39. Ying Y-K, Daly DC, Randolph JF, et al:  Ultrasonographic Monitoring of Follicular Growth of Luteal Phase Defects.  Fertil Steril 48:433-436, 1987.
  40. Grunfeld L, Walker B, Bergh PA, et al:  High-Resolution Endovaginal Ultrasonography of the Endometrium:  A Non-Invasive Test for Endometrial Adequacy.  Obstet Gynecol 78:200-204, 1991.
  41. Glock JL, Brumsted JR:  Color Flow Pulsed Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosing Luteal Phase Defect.  Fertil Steril 64:500-504, 1995. 
  42. Lessey BA, Castelbaum AJ, Sawin SW, et al:  Integrins as Markers of Uterine Receptivity in Women with Primary Unexplained Infertility.  Fertil Steril 63:535-542, 1995.
  43. Lanteri E, Pistritto M, Barteoloni G, et al:  Expression of Alpha-6 and Beta-4 Integrin Subunits on Human Endometrium throughout the Menstrual Cycle and During Early Pregnancy.  Fertil Steril 69:37-40, 1998. 
  44. Wu CH, Minassian SS:  The Integrated Luteal Progesterone:  An Assessment of Luteal Function.  Fertil Steril 48:937-940, 1987.
  45. Soules MR, McLachlan RI, Ek M, et al:  Luteal Phase Deficiency:  Characterization of Reproductive Hormones over the Menstrual Cycle.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69:804-812, 1989.
  46. McNeely MJ, Soules MR:  The Diagnosis of Luteal Phase Deficiency:  A Critical Review.  Fertil Steril 50:1-15, 1988.
  47. Alexander SE, Aksel S, Yeoman RR, et al:  Gonadotropin and Ovarian Hormone Dynamics in Luteal Phase Defects.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:652-657, 1992. 
  48. Cline DL:  Unsuspected Subclinical Pregnancies in Patients with Luteal Phase Defects.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 134:438-444, 1979.
  49. Kusuhara K:  Clinical Importance of Endometrial Histology and Progesterone Level Assessment in Luteal-Phase Defect.  Horm Res 37 (Suppl 1):53-58, 1992.
  50. Hinney B, Henze C, Kuhn W, et al:  The Corpus Luteum Insufficiency:  A Multifactorial Disease.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:565-570, 1996.
  51. DiZerga GS, Hodgen GD:  Luteal Phase Dysfunction Infertility:  A Sequel to Aberrant Folliculogenesis.  Fertil Steril 35:489-499, 1981. 
  52. Hodgen GD:  The Dominant Ovarian Follicle.  Fertil Steril 38:281-300, 1982.
  53. Strott CA, Cargile CM, Ross GT, et al:  The Short Luteal Phase.  J Clin Endocrinol 30:246, 1970.
  54. Lenton EA, Landgren B-M, Sexton L:  Normal Variation in the Length of the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle:  Identification of the Short Luteal Phase.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91:685, 1984.
  55. Hilgers TW, Abraham G, Prebil AM:  The Length of the Luteal Phase.  Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13:99, 1989.
  56. Cook CL, Rao CV, Yussman MA:  Plasma Gonadotropin and Sex Steroid Hormone Levels During Early, Midfollicular and Midluteal Phases of Women with Luteal Phase Defects.  Fertil Steril 40:45-48, 1983.
  57. Schweiger U, Laessle RG, Tuschl RJ, et al:  Decreased Follicular Phase Gonadotropin Secretion is Associated with Impaired Estradiol and Progesterone Secretion During the Follicular and Luteal Phases in Normally-Menstruating Women.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68:888-892, 1989.
  58. Soules MR, Clifton DK, Colin NL, et al:  Luteal Phase Deficiency:  Abnormal Gonadotropin and Progesterone Secretion Patterns.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69:813-820, 1989.
  59. Loucks AB, Mortola JF, Girton L, et al:  Alterations in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes in Athletic Women.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68:402, 1989. 
  60. Check JH, Goldberg BB, Kurtz A, et al:  Pelvic Sonography to Help Determine the Appropriate Therapy for Luteal Phase Defects.  Int J Fertil 29:156, 1984.
  61. O’Hara A, Mori T, Taii S, et al:  Functional Differentiation in Steroidogenesis of Two Types of Luteal Cells Isolated from Mature Human Corpora Lutea of the Menstrual Cycle.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:1192-1200, 1987.
  62. Gautray JP, deBrux J, Tajchner G, et al:  Clinical Investigation of the Menstrual Cycle.  III. Clinical, Endometrial and Endocrine Aspects of Luteal Defect.  Fertil Steril 35:296-303, 1981.
  63. Lessey BA, Yeah I-T, Castelbaum AJ, et al:  Endometrial Progesterone Receptors and Markers of Uterine Receptivity in the Window of Implantation.  Fertil Steril 65:477-483, 1986. 
  64. Hirama Y, Ochiai K:  Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors of the Out-of-Phase Endometrium in Female Infertile Patients.  Fertil Steril 63:984-988, 1995.
  65. Yovich JL, McColm SC, Yovich JM, et al:  Early Luteal Serum Progesterone Concentrations are Higher in Pregnancy Cycles.  Fertil Steril 44:185-189, 1985. 
  66. Lenton EA, Sulaiman R, Sobowale O, et al:  The Human Menstrual Cycle:  Plasma Concentrations of Prolactin, LH, FSH, Oestradiol and Progesterone in Conceiving and Non-Conceiving Women.  J Reprod Fert 65:131-139, 1982. 
  67. Younis JS, Ezra Y, Sherman Y, et al:  The Effect of Estradiol Depletion During the Luteal Phase on Endometrial Development.  Fertil Steril 62:103-107, 1994. 
  68. Molo MW, Rawlins RG, Binor Z, et al:  Luteal Phase Estradiol and Pregnancy Outcome in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist/Human Menopausal Gonadotropin-Treated Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer Cycles.  J Reprod Med 40:418-422, 1995. 
  69. Hammond MG, Talbert LM:  Clomiphene Citrate Therapy of Infertile Women with Low Luteal Phase Progesterone Levels.  Obstet Gynecol 59:275-279, 1982. 
  70. Downs KA, Gibson M:  Clomiphene Citrate Therapy for Luteal Phase Defect.  Fertil Steril 39:34-38, 1983. 
  71. Murray DL, Reich L, Adashi EY:  Oral Clomiphene Citrate and Vaginal Progesterone Suppositories in the Treatment of Luteal Phase Dysfunction:  A Comparative Study.  Fertil Steril 51:35-41, 1989.
  72. Keenan JA, Herbert CM, Bush JR, et al:  Diagnosis and Management of Out-of-Phase Endometrial Biopsies Among Patients Receiving Clomiphene Citrate for Ovulation Induction.  Fertil Steril 51:964-967, 1989. 
  73. Minassin SS, Wu CC, Groll M, et al:  Urinary Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment for Luteal Phase Defect.  J Reprod Med 33:11-16, 1988. 
  74. Balasch J, Jove IC, Marquez M, et al:  Early Follicular Phase Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment of Endometrial Luteal Phase Deficiency.  Fertil Steril 54:1004-1007, 1990. 
  75. Grazi RV, Taney FH, Gagliardi CL, et al:  The Luteal Phase During Gonadotropin Therapy:  Effects of Two Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Regimens.  Fertil Steril 55:1088-1092, 1991. 
  76. Dizerega GS, Hodgen GD:  Follicular Phase Treatment of Luteal Phase Dysfunction.  Fertil Steril 35:428-432, 1981.
  77. Wu CH:  A Short Course of Menotropin after Clomiphene Failure in Infertile Women with Luteal Phase Defects.  J Reprod Med 34:807-810, 1989.
  78. Huang K-E, Muechler EK, Bonfiglio TA:  Follicular Phase Treatment of Luteal Phase Defect with Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Infertile Women.  Obstet Gynecol 64:32-36, 1984.
  79. Hamilton CJCM, Jarodi KA, Sieck UV:  The Value of Luteal Support with Progesterone in Gonadotropin-Induced Cycles.  Fertil Steril 60:786-790, 1993. 
  80. Frishman GN, Klock SC, Luciano AA, et al:  Efficacy of Oral Micronized Progesterone in the Treatment of Luteal Phase Defects.  J Reprod Med 40:521-524, 1993. 
  81. Wentz AC, Herbert CM, Maxson WS, et al:  Outcome of Progesterone Treatment of Luteal Phase Inadequacy.  Fertil Steril 41:856-862, 1984. 
  82. Rosenberg SM, Luciano AA, Riddick DH:  The Luteal Phase Defect:  The Relative Frequency of, and Encouraging Response to, Treatment with Vaginal Progesterone.  Fertil Steril 34:17-20, 1980.
  83. Soliman S, Daya S, Collins J, et al:  The Role of Luteal Phase Support in Infertility Treatment:  The Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.  Fertil Steril 61:1068-1076, 1994. 
  84. Fritz MA, Hess DL, Patton PE:  Influence of Corpus Luteum Age on the Steroidogenic Response to Exogenous Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Normal Cycling Women.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:709-716, 1992.
  85. Jones GS, Aksel S, Wentz AC:  Serum Progesterone Values in the Luteal Phase Defects.  Obstet Gynecol 44:26-34, 1974.
  86. Fanchin R, Peltier E, Frydman R, et al:  Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Does it Affect Human Endometrial Morphology in vivo?  Semin Reprod Med 19:31-35, 2001.
  87. Buvat J, Marcolin G, Guittard C, et al:  Luteal Support after Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist for In VitroFertilization:  Superiority of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Over Oral Progesterone. Fertil Steril 53:494, 1990. 
  88. Elkind-Hirsch KE, Bello S, Esparcia L, et al:  Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels are Correlated with Body Mass Index rather than Route of Administration in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer using Human Menopausal Gonadotropin and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.  American Society of Reproductive Medicine, 2001.
  89. Stelling JR, Chapman ET, Frankfurter D, et al:  Subcutaneous vs. Intramuscular Administration of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin during an In Vitro Fertilization Cycle.  Fertil Steril 79:881-885, 2003.
  90. Gleicher N, Brown T, Dudkiewicz A, et al:  Estradiol/Progesterone Substitution in the Luteal Phase Improves Pregnancy Rates in Stimulated Cycles, but only in Younger Women.  Early Pregnancy 4:64-73, 2000.
  91. Kiider AS, Coulam CB:  Luteal Estrogen Supplementation in Pregnancies Associated with Low Serum Estradiol Concentrations.  Early Pregnancy 4:191-199, 2000.
  92. Blacker CM, Ginsburg KA, Leach RE, et al:  Unexplained Infertility:  Evaluation of the Luteal Phase; Results of the National Center for Infertility Research at Michigan.  Fertil Steril 67:437-442, 1997.


G. Hormones vs. Artimones

  1. Gruhn JG, Kazer RR:  Hormone Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle:  The Evolution of Concepts.  Plenum Medical Book Co.  New York/London, 1989.
  2. Medvei VC:  A History of Endocrinology.  Lancaster, MTP Press, Ltd., 1982.
  3. Loose-Mitchell DS, Stancel GM:  Estrogens and Progestins.  In:  Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG (Eds)  Goodman and Gilman’s:  The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics.  10th Ed.  McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 2001.
  4. Allen WM:  Recollections of my Life with Progesterone.  Gynec. Invest: 5:142-182, 1974.
  5. O’Malley BW, Strott CA:  Steroid Hormones:  Metabolism and Mechanism of Action. In:  Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, Barbieri RL (Eds).  Reproductive Endocrinology:  Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management, 4th Ed.  W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1999.
  6. Barton M, Wiesner BP:  Thermogenic Effect of Progesterone.  The Lancet.  671-672, November 24, 1945.
  7. Israel SL, Schneller O:  The Thermogenic Property of Progesterone.  Fertil Steril 1:53-64, 1950.
  8. Girouard LG, Holm RC:  The Role of Natural Progesterone in Natural Hormone Replacement Therapy.  Int J Pharm Cmpd 5:218-220, 2001. 
  9. Dodds EC, Goldberg L, Lawson W, et al:  Oestrogenic Activity of Alkylated Stilbestrols.  Nature (London) 142:34, 1938.
  10. Birch AJ:  Hydroaromatic Steroid Hormones.  1.  10-Nortestosterone. J Chem Soc 92:367-368, 1950. 
  11. Moghissi KS, Syner FN, Evans TN:  A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 114:405-418, 1972. 
  12. The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs:  An Encyclopedia for Chemists, Pharmacists, Physicians and Members of Allied Professions.  7th Ed.  Merck and Co, Rahway NJ, 1960.
  13. Wenger NK, Speroff L, Packard B.  Cardiovascular Health and Disease in Women.  N Engl J Med.  329:247-256, 1993.
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  18. Miyagawa K, Rosch J, Stanczyk F, et al.  Medroxyprogesterone Interferes with Ovarian Steroid Protection Against Coronary Vasospasm. Nat Med. 3:324-328, 1997.
  19. Williams JK, Honore EK, Washburn SA, et al:  Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Reactivity of Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries in Cynomolgus Monkeys.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 24:1757-1761, 1994.
  20. Giuseppe MC, Rosano M.D., Webb CM, et al:  Natural Progesterone, but not Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Enhances the Beneficial Effect of Estrogen on Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Postmenopausal Women.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 36:2154-2159, 2000.
  21. Corvol P, Elkik M, Feneant ME, et al:  Effect of Progesterone and Progestins on Water and Salt Metabolism.  In:  Progesterone and Progestins.  New York, Raven Press, 1983.
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  23. Kuhl H.  Pharmacokinetics of Oestrogens and Progestogens. Maturitas 12:171-197, 1990.
  24. Rylance PB, Brincet M, Lafferty K, et al.  Natural Progesterone and Antihypertensive Action. Br Med J. 290:13-14, 1985.
  25. Rosano GM, Ranina G.  Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Hormone Replacement Therapy. Drugs Aging.  15:219-234, 1999.
  26. Armstrong JG:  Hypotensive Action of Progesterone in Experimental and Human Hypertension.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med.  102:452-455, 1959.
  27. Reiss U:  Natural Hormone Balance.  New York: Pocket Books (Simon & Schuster); 6, 2001.
  28. Snabes MC, Payne JP, Kopelen HA et al.  Physiologic Estradiol Replacement Therapy and Cardiac Structure and Function in Normal Postmenopausal Women:  A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.  Obstetrics & Gynecology. 89:332-339, 1997.
  29. Rosano GMC, Sarrel PM, Poole-Wilson PA, et al:  Beneficial Effect of Oestrogen on Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischaemia in Women with Coronary Artery Disease.  The Lancet. 342:133-136, 1993. 
  30. Volterrani M, Rosano G, Coates A, et al:  Estrogen Acutely Increases Peripheral Blood Flow in Postmenopausal Women. The American Journal of Medicine.  99:119-122, 1995.
  31. Riedel M, Oeltermann A, Mugge A, et al:  Vascular Responses to 17β-Oestradiol in Postmenopausal Women.  European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 25:44-47, 1995.
  32. Cacciatore B, Paakkari I, Toivonen J, et al:  Randomized Comparison of Oral and Transdermal Hormone Replacement on Carotid and Uterine Artery Resistance to Blood Flow.  Obstetrics & Gynecology. 92(4 Pt 1): 563-568, 1998.
  33. Karjalainen A, Heikkinen J, Savolainen MUJ et al:  Metabolic Changes Induced by Peroral Oestrogen and Transdermal Oestradiol Gel Therapy.  British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104 (Suppl 16):38-43, 1997.
  34. Haines C, Chung T, Chang A, et al:  Effect of Oral Estradiol on Lp(a) and other Lipoproteins in Postmenopausal Women.  A randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.  Archives of Internal Medicine 156:866-872, 1996.
  35. Parsey K, Ellman H, Rahman M, et al:  Randomized, Controlled Comparison of Transdermal Estradiol with Oral Conjugated Estrogens for the Relief of Hot Flashes.  Clin Drug Invest 20:207-214, 2000.
  36. Takahashi K, Manabe A, Okada M, et al:  Efficacy and Safety of Oral Estriol for Managing Postmenopausal Symptoms.  Maturitas 34:169-177, 2000.
  37. Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anesti JN.  Transdermal Progesterone Cream for Vasomotor Symptoms and Postmenopausal bone loss  Obstet Gynecol  94:225-228, 1999.
  38. Fitzpatrick LA, Pace C, Wiita B:  Comparison of Regimens Containing Oral Micronized Progesterone or Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women:  A cross-sectional survey.  J Women’s Health Gend Based Med 9:381-387, 2000.
  39. Chang KJ, Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, et al.  Influences of Percutaneous administration of Estradiol and Progesterone on Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cycle In vivo.  Fertil Steril 63:785-791, 1995.
  40. Foidart JM, Colin C, Denoo X, et al.  Estradiol and Progesterone  Regulate the Proliferation of Human Breast Epithelial Cells.  Fertil Steril 69:963969, 1998.
  41. Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, et al:  Breast Cancer Incidence in Women with a History of Progesterone Deficiency.  Am J Epidemiol 114:209-217, 1981.
  42. Inoh A, Kamiya K, Fujii Y, et al:  Protective Effects of Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Estrogen-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Ovariectomized W/FU rats.  Jpn J Cancer Res 76:699-704, 1985.
  43. Kuttenn F, Gerson M:  Hormone Replacement Therapy of Menopause, Heart and Blood Vessels.  Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:685-689, 2001.
  44. Wright DW, Bauer ME, Hoffman SW, et al:  Serum Progesterone Levels Correlate with Decreased Cerebral Edema after Traumatic Brain Injury in Male Rats.  J Neurotrauma 18:901-909, 2001.
  45. Nilsen J. Brinton RD:  Impact of Progestins on Estrogen-Induced Neuroprotection:  Synergy by Progesterone and 19-norprogesterone and Antagonism by Medroxyprogesterone acetate.
  46. Trotter A, Maier L, Pohlandt F:  Management of the Extremely Preterm Infant:  Is the Replacement of Estradiol and Progesterone Beneficial?  Paediatr Drugs 3:629-637, 2001.
  47. Herzog AG:  Reproductive Endocrine Considerations and Hormonal Therapy for Women with Epilepsy.  Epilepsia 32:S27-S33, 1991.
  48. Herzog  AG:  Progesterone Therapy in Women with Complex Partial and Secondary Generalized Seizures.  Neurology 45:1660-1662, 1995.
  49. Reginster JY, Christiansen C, Dequinze B, et al:  Effect of Transdermal 17 beta-estradiol and Oral Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Biochemical Parameters of Bone Resorption in Natural Menopause.  Calcified Tissue International 53:13-16, 1993.
  50. Ettinger B, Harry K, Steiger P, et al:  Low-dosage Micronized 17β-estradiol prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women.  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 166:479-488, 1992.
  51. Evans SF, Davie MW:  Low and Conventional Dose Transdermal Oestradiol are Equally Effective at Preventing Bone Loss in Spine and Femur at all Postmenopausal Ages.  Clinical Endocrinology 44:79-84, 1996.
  52. Minaguchi H, Uemura T, Shirasu K, et al:  Effect of Estriol on Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Japanese Women:  A multicenter prospective open study.  Journal of Obstetric & Gynaecologic Research 22:259-265, 1996.
  53. Devogelaer JP, Lecart C, Dupret P, et al:  Long-term Effects of Percutaneous Estradiol on Bon Loss and Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Hysterectomized Women.  Maturitas 28:243-249, 1998. 
  54. Raz R, Stamm WE:  A Controlled Trial of Intravaginal Estriol in Postmenopausal Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.  N Engl J Med 329:753-756, 1993.
  55. Kirkenger A, Andersen P, Gjersoe E, et al:  Oestriol in the Prophylactic Treatment of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Postmenopausal Women.  Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 10:139-142, 1992.
  56. Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, et al:  Treatment of Skin Aging with Topical Estrogens.  International Journal of Dermatology 35:669-674, 1996.
  57. Mercuro G, Zoncu S, Piano D, et al:  Estradiol-17 beta Reduces Blood Pressure and Restores the Normal Amplitude of the Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythm in Postmenopausal Hypertension.  American Journal of Hypertension 11(8 Pt 1):909-913, 1998.
  58. Van Ittersum FJ, Van Baal WM, Kenemans P, et al:  Ambulatory – not office – Blood Pressures Decline During Hormone Replacement Therapy in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.  American Journal of Hypertension 11:1147-1152, 1998.
  59. Lipson SF, Ellison PT:  Reference Values for Luteal Progesterone Measured by Salivary Radioimmunoassay.  Fertil Steril 61:448-454, 1994.
  60. de Lignieres B, Driguez PD:  Long-term Experience with Oral Micronized Progesterone and Effects on the Endometrium.  Contemporary OB/GYN.  September (suppl) 10, 1998.
  61. Follingstad A.  Estriol, the Forgotten Estrogen?  JAMA 239:29-30, 1978.
  62. Bulbrook RD, Swain MC, Wang DY, et al:  Breast Cancer in Britain and Japan:  Plasma Oestradiol-17β, Oestrone and Progesterone and their Urinary Metabolites in Normal British and Japanese Women.  Eur J Cancer 12:725-735, 1976.
  63. Lemon HM, Wotiz HH, Parsons L, et al:  Reduced Estriol Excretion in Patients with Breast Cancer Prior to Endocrine Therapy.  JAMA 196:1128-1136, 1966.
  64. Lemon HM:  Oestriol and Prevention of Breast Cancer.  Lancet 1:546-547, 1973.
  65. Tzingounis VA, Aksu MF, Greenblatt RB:  Estriol in the Management of Menopause.  JAMA 239:1638-1641, 1978.
  66. Yen SS, Martin PL, Burnier NM, et al:  Circulating Estradiol, Estrone and Gonadotropin Levels Following Administration of Orally Active 17β-estradiol in Postmenopausal Women.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40:518-521, 1975.
  67. Lemon HM, Wotiz HH, Parsons L, et al:  Reduced Estriol Excretion in Patients with Breast Cancer Prior to Endocrine Therapy.  JAMA 196:1128-1136, 1966.
  68. Fishman J. Fukushima DK, O’Connor J, et al:  Low Urinary Estrogen Glucuronides in Women at Risk for Familial Breast Cancer.  Science 204:1089-1091, 1979.
  69. Bhavnani BR:  Pharmokinetics and Pharmodynamics of Conjugated Equine Estrogen:  Chemistry and Metabolism.  Pro Soc Exp Biol Med 217:6-16, 1998.
  70. Stumpf PG:  Pharmacokinetics of Estrogen.  Obstet Gynecol 75(suppl 4):9S-14S, 1990.
  71. Bhavnani BR, Gerulath AH:  Metabolism of [3H] Equilin in Normal and Malignant Human Endometrium and in Endl Adenocarcinoma Transplanted into Nude Mice.  J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 38:433-439, 1991.
  72. Bhavnani BR, Cecutti A:  Metabolic Clearance Rate of Equilin Sulfate and its Conversion to Plasma Equilin, Conjugated and Unconjugated Equilenin, 17 beta-dihydroequilin, and 17 beta-dihydroequilenin in Normal Postmenopausal Woman and Men under Steady State Conditions.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:1269-1274, 1993.
  73. Zhang F, Chen Y, Pisha E, et al:  The major metabolites of Equalin, 4-hydroxyequilin, Autoxidizes to an o-quinone which Isomerizes to the Potent Cytotoxin 4-hydroequilenin-o-quinone.  Chem Res Toxicol 12:204-213, 1999.
  74. Nillius SJ, Johansson EDB:  Plasma Levels of Progesterone after Vaginal, Rectal or Intramuscular Administration of Progesterone.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 110:470-477, 1971.  
  75. Price JH, Ismail H, Gorwell RH, et. al.:  Effect of the Suppository Base on Progesterone Delivery from the Vagina.  Fertil Steril 39:490-493, 1983.
  76. Maxson WS, Hargrove JT:  Bioavailability of Oral Micronized Progesterone.  Fertil Steril 44:622-626, 1985.
  77. Ferre F, Uzan M, Janssens Y, et al:  Oral Administration of Micronized Natural Progesterone in Late Human Pregnancy:  Effects on Progesterone and Estrogen Concentrations in the Plasma, Placenta, and Myometrium.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 148:26-34, 1984. 
  78. Pawick ML, Endicott J, Matson C, Whitehead MI:  Absorption and Metabolism of Oral Progesterone Administered Twice Daily.  Fertil Steril 46:402-407, 1986.
  79. Sitruk-Ware R, Brikaire C,  de Lignieres B, et al:  Oral Micronized Progesterone:  Bioavailability Pharmokinetics, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Implications – A Review.
  80. Contraception.  36:373-402, 1987. 
  81. Chakmakjian ZH, Zacharia NY:  Bioavailability of Progesterone with Different Modes of Administration.  J Repro Med 32:443-448, 1987.
  82. Nahoul K, Dehennin L, Scholler R:  Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Progesterone After Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone.  J Steroid Biochem 26:241-249, 1987.
  83. Nahoul K, Dehennin L, Scholler R:  Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Progesterone After Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone.  J Steroid Biochem 26:241-249, 1987.
  84. Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC:  Absorption of Oral Progesterone is Influenced by Vehicle and Particle Size.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:948-951, 1989. 
  85. Cheema M, Palin KJ, Davis SS:  Lipid Vehicles for Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Absorption.  J Pharmacol 59:55-56, 1987. 
  86. Kimzey LM, Gumowski J, Merriam GR, et al:  Absorption of Micronized Progesterone from a Non-Liquifying Vaginal Cream.  Fertil Steril 56:995-996, 1991. 
  87. Villanueva B, Casper RF, Yen SSC:  Intravaginal Administration of Progesterone:  Enhanced Absorption after Estrogen Treatment.  Fertil Steril 35:433-437, 1981. 
  88. Cicinelli E, Ragno G, Cagnazzo I, et al:  Progesterone Administration by Nasal Spray.  Fertil Steril 56:139-141, 1991. 
  89. Simon JA, Robinson DE, Andrews MC, et al:  The Absorption of Oral Micronized Progesterone:  The effect of food, dose proportionality, and comparison with intramuscular progesterone.  Fertil Steril 60:26-33, 1993.
  90. Fanchin R, deZiegler D, Bergeron C, et al:  Transvaginal Administration of Progesterone.  Obstet Gynecol 90:396-401, 1997.
  91. Standzyk FZ:  Pharmokinetics of Progesterone Administered by the Oral Parenteral Routes. J Repro Med 44:141-147, 1999.
  92. Barnhart K, Pretorius EC, Stolpen A, Malamud D:  Distribution of Topical Medication in the Human Vagina as Imaged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  Fertil Steril 76:189-195, 2001.
  93. Cicienelli E, Cignarelli M, Sabatelli S, et al:  Plasma Concentrations of Progesterone are Higher in the Uterine Artery than in the Radial Artery after Vaginal Administration of Micronized Progesterone in an Oil-Based Solution to Postmenopausal Women.  Fertil Steril 69:471-473, 1998. 
  94. Bulletti C, DeZiegler D, Flamigni C, et al:  Targeted Drug Delivery In Gynaecology:  The First Uteirne Pass Effect.  Hum Reprod 12:1073-1079, 1997.
  95. Warren MP, Shantha S:  The Use of Progesterone in Clinical Practice.  Int J Fertil 44:96-103, 1999.
  96. Miles RA, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA, et al:  Pharmacokinetics and Endometrial Tissue Levels of Progesterone after Administration by Intramuscular and Vaginal Routes:  A comparative study.  Fertil Steril 62:485-490, 1994.


H. Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

  1. Reproductive Endocrinology Precis, 2nd Edition:  Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.  American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington DC 2002.
  2. Warburton D, Fraser FC:  Spontaneous Abortion Risks in Man:  Data from Reproductive Histories Collected in a Medical Genetics Unit.  Human Genetics.  16:1-24, 1964.
  3. Kutteh W H, Carney GL:  Etiologic Factors in Women with a History of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.  Obstet Gynecol 42S, 1999.
  4. Coulam CB:  Association between Infertility and Spontaneous Abortion.  Am J Reprod Immunol 27:128-129, 1992.
  5. Regan L:  Endocrine Factors in Recurrent Miscarriage.  Inf Reprod Med Clin North Am 7:721-743, 1996.
  6. Joffe M, Li Z:  Association of Time to Pregnancy and the Outcome of Pregnancy.  Fertil Steril 62:71-75, 1994.
  7. Newcom WW, Rodriguez M, Johnson JWC:  Reproduction in the Older Gravida:  A Literature Review.  J Reprod Med 36:839-845, 1991.
  8. Klopper A, MacNaughton M:  Hormones in Recurrent Abortion.  J Obstet Gynecol 1022-1028, 1966.
  9. Corker CS, Michie E, Hobson B, et al:  Hormonal Patterns in Conceptual Cycles and Early Pregnancy.  Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:489-494, 1976.
  10. Daya S, Ward S, Burrows E:  Progesterone Profiles in Luteal Phase Defects and Outcome of Progesterone Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:225-232, 1988.
  11. Kutteh WH:  Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.  N:Carr BR, Blackwell RE (Eds).  Textbook of Reproductive Medicine.  2nd Edition.  Appleton and Lange, Stamford, CT, 1998.
  12. Boue J, Boue A, Lazar P:  Retrospective and Prospective Epidemiological Studies of 1500 Karyotyped Spontaneous Human Abortions.  Teratology. 12:11-26, 1975.
  13. Hassold T, Chen N, Funkhouser J, et al:  A Cytogenetic Study of 1000 Spontaneous Abortions.  Ann Hume Genet Lond 44:151-178, 1980.
  14. Daya S:  Endometriosis and Spontaneous Abortion.  In:  Inf Reprod Med Clin North Am 7:759-773, 1996.
  15. Ramy JW, Archer DF:  Peritoneal Fluid:  Its Relevance to the Development of Endometriosis.  Fertil Steril 60:1-14, 1993.
  16. Daya S, Gumby J:  Immunosuppression in Human Decidua Against Natural Killer Cells.  Proceedings of Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society Annual Meeting 1988.
  17. Taketami Y, Kuo T-M, Mizuno M:  Comparison of Cytokine Levels and Embryo Toxicity in Peritoneal Fluid in Infertile Women with Untreated or Treated Endometriosis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:265-270, 1992.
  18. Cunningham DS, Tichenor JR, Opsahl MS:  Ultrasonographic Characteristics of First-Trimester Gestations in Recurrent Spontaneous Aborters.  J Reprod Med 40:454-570, 1995.
  19. Csapo AI, Pulkkinen MO, Ruttner B, et al:  The Significance of the Human Corpus Luteum in Pregnancy Maintenance.  I. Preliminary Studies.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 112:1061-1067, 1972.
  20. Aksel S, Jones GS:  Effect of Progesterone and 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate on Normal Corpus Luteum Function.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 118:466-472, 1974.
  21. Bishop PMF, Richards NA:  Habitual Abortion:  Prophylactic Value of Progesterone Pellet Implantation.  Brit Med J 130-133, July 15, 1950.
  22. Cope E, Emelife EC:  Habitual Abortion Treated with 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. J Obstet Gynecol Brit Comm 72:1035-1037, 1966.
  23. Gerhard I, Gwinner B, Eggert-Cruse W, et al:  Double-Dash Blind Controlled Trial of Progesterone Substitution in Threatened Abortion.  Bio Res Preg 8:26-34, 1987.
  24. Morgan J, Hackett WR, Hunt T:  The Place of Progesterone in the Treatment of Abortion.  J Obstet Gynecol Brit Emp 323-324, 1960.
  25. Check JH, Chase JS, Wu C-8, et al:  The Efficacy of Progesterone in Achieving Successful Pregnancy:  I.  Prophylactic Use During Luteal Phase in Anovulatory Women.  Int J Fertil 32:135-138, 1987.
  26. Check JH, Adelso HG:  The Efficacy of Progesterone in Achieving Successful Pregnancy:  II.  In Women with Pure Luteal Phase Defects. Int J Fertil 32:139-141, 1987.
  27. Check JH, Chase JS, Nowroozi K, et al:  Progesterone Therapy to Decrease First-Trimester Spontaneous Abortions in Previous Orders.  Int J Fertil 32:192-199, 1987.
  28. Daya S:  Efficacy of Progesterone Support for Pregnancy in Women with a Recurrent Miscarriage.  A Meta-analysis of Controlled Trials.  Brit J Obstet Gynecol 96:275-280, 1989.
  29. Prietl G, Diedrich K, Van Der Ven HH, et al:  The Effect of 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate/Oestradiol Valerate on the Development and Outcome of Early Pregnancies Following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer:  A Prospective and Randomized Controlled Trial.  Hum Reprod 7:1-5, 1992.
  30. Pouly JL, Bassil S, Frydman R, et al:  Luteal Support After In-Vitro Fertilization:  Crinone 8%, A Sustained-Release Vaginal Progesterone Gel, Versus Utrogestan an Oral Micronized Progesterone.  Hum Reprod 11:2085-2089, 1996.
  31. Propst AM, Hill JA, Ginsburg ES, et al:  A Randomized Study Comparing Crinone 8%, An Intramuscular Progesterone Supplementation in In-Vitro Fertilization – Embryo Transfer Cycles.  Fertil Steril 76:1144-1149, 2001.
  32. Swyer GIM, Daley D:  Progesterone Implantation in Habitual Abortion.  Brit Med J 1073-1077, May 16, 2953.
  33. Goldzieher JW:  Double-Dash Blind Trial of a Progestin in Habitual Abortion.  JAMA. 188:651-654, 1964.
  34. Moller KJA, Fuchs F:  Double-Dash Blind Controlled Trial of 6-Methyl, 17-Acetoxyprogesterone in Threatened Abortion.  J Obstet Gynecol Brit Comm 72:1042-1044, 1968.
  35. Shearman RP, Garrett WJ:  Double-Dash Blind Study of the Effect of 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate on Abortion Rate.  Brit Med J 292-295, February 2, 1963.
  36. Cole LA:  hCG Its Free Subunits and Its Metabolites:  Roles in Pregnancy and Trophoblastic Disease.  J Reprod Med 43:3-10, 1998.
  37. Licht P, Russu V, Wildt L:  The Role of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in the Embryo-Endometrial Micro Environment:  Implications for Differentiation and Implantation.  Semin Reprod Med 19:37-47, 2001.
  38. Wulff C, Dickson SE, Duncan WC, et al:  Angiogenesis in the Human Corpus Luteum:  Simulated Early Pregnancy by hCG Treatment is Associated with Both Angiogenesis and Vessel Stabilization.  Hum Reprod 16:2515-2524, 2001.
  39. Svigos J:  Preliminary Experience with the Use of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Therapy in Women with Repeated Abortion.  Clin Reprod Fertil 1:131-135, 1982.
  40. Yovich JL:  Assessment and Hormonal Treatment of the Luteal Phase in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles.  Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaec 24:125-130, 1984.
  41. Harrison RF:  Treatment of Habitual Abortion with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin:  Results of Open and Placebo-Controlled Studies.  Europ J Obstet Gynec Reprod Bio 20:159-168, 1985. 
  42. Harrison RF:  Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in the Management of Recurrent Abortion:  Results of a Multi-Centre Placebo-Controlled Study.  Europ J Obstet Gynec Reprod Bio 47:175-179, 1992.
  43. Harrison RF:  A Comparative Study of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Placebo, and Bedrest for Women with Early Threatened Abortion.  Int J Fertil 38:160-165, 1993.
  44. Blumenfeld Z, Ruach M:  Early Pregnancy Wastage:  The Role of Repetitive Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplementation During the First Eight Weeks of Gestation.  Fertil Steril 58:19-23, 1992.
  45. Quenby S, Farquharson RG:  Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplementation in Recurring Pregnancy Loss:  A Controlled Trial.  Fertil Steril 62:708-710, 1994.
  46. Branch DW, Porter F, Paidas MJ, et al:  Obstetric Uses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin:  Successes, Failures, and Promises.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:S133-8, 2001.
  47. Rai R, Cohen H, Dave N, et al:  Randomized Controlled Trial of Aspirin and Aspirin Plus Heparin in Pregnant Women with Recurrent Miscarriages Associated with Phospholipid Antibodies (or Antiphospholipid Antibodies).  Brit Med J 314:253-257, 1997.
  48. Farquharson RG, Quenby S, Greaves M:  Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy:  A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Treatment.  Obstet Gynecol 100:408-413, 2002.


I. Effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in the Treatment of Infertility

  1. Kaplan EL, Meier P:  Non-Parametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations.  J Am Stat Assoc 53:457-481, 1956. 
  2. Olive DL, Haney AF:  Endometriosis-Associated Infertility:  A Critical Review of Therapeutic Approaches.  Obstet Gynecol Surv 41:538-553, 1986.
  3. Sharma V, Allgar V, Rajkhowa M:  Factors Influencing the Cumulative Conception Rate and Discontinuation of In VitroFertilization Treatment for Infertility.  Fertil Steril 78:40-46, 2002. 
  4. 2001 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates:  National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports.  American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Center for Disease Control, Atlanta and Birmingham, December 2003.
  5. Cramer DW, Walker AM, Schiff I:  Statistical Methods in Evaluating the Outcome of Fertility Therapy.  Fertil Steril 32:80-86, 1979.
  6. Olive DL:  Analysis of Clinical Fertility Trials:  A Methodologic Review.  Fertil Steril 45:157-171, 1986. 
  7. Rock JA, Guzick DS, Sengos C, et al:  The Conservative Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis:  Evaluation of Pregnancy Success with Respect to the Extent of Disease as Categorized Using Contemporary Classification Systems.  Fertil Steril 35:131-137, 1981.
  8. Adashi EY, Rock JA, Guzick D, et al:  Fertility Following Bilateral Ovarian Wedge Resection:  A Critical Analysis of 90 Consecutive Cases of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 36:320-325, 1981.
  9. Hogan JW:  Identifying and Addressing Data-Analytic Challenges in Studies of IVF and ART.  In:  International Symposium on Frontiers and Reproductive Endocrinology.  Serono Symposia USA., Washington DC March 27-31, 2001.
  10. Guzick DS, Wilkes C, Jones HW:  Cumulative Pregnancy Rates forIn Vitro Fertilization.  Fertil Steril 46:663-667, 1986. 
  11. Jones HW, Schnorr JA:  Multiple Pregnancies:  A Call to Action.  Fertil Steril 75:11-13, 2001.
  12. Karande VC, Korn A, Morris R, et al:  Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing the Outcome and Cost of In Vitro Fertilization with that of a Traditional Treatment Algorithm as First-Line Therapy for Couples with Infertility.  Fertil Steril 71:468-475, 1999.
  13. Campbell JS, Pasta DJ, Adamson GD:  Preliminary Meta-Analysis Comparing In Vitro Fertilization with Surgical Treatment for Moderate and Severe Endometriosis.  J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2:S6-S7, 1995.
  14. Driscoll GL, Tyler JPP:  What is the Best Strategy for Presenting ART Results?  A Controversial Comment.  J Assist Reprod Genet 16:463-467, 1999.


J. Premenstrual Syndrome

  1. Frank RT:  The Hormonal Basis of Premenstrual Tension.  Arch Neurol Psych 26:1053, 1931.
  2. Dalton K:  The Premenstrual Syndrome.  Heinemann, London 1964.
  3. Dalton K:  The Premenstrual Syndrome and Progesterone Therapy.  Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1977.
  4. Magyar DM, Boyers SP, Marshall JR, Abraham GE:  Regular Menstrual Cycles and Premenstrual Molimina as Indicators of Ovulation.  Obstet Gynecol 53:411-414, 1979. 
  5. Hartlage SA, Arduino KE, Gehlert S:  Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Risk for Major Depressive Disorder:  A Preliminary Study.  J Clin Psychol 57:1571-1578, 2001.
  6. Sternfeld B, Swindle R, Chawla A, Long S, Kennedy S:  Severity of Premenstrual Symptoms in a Health Maintenance Organization Population.  Obstet Gynecol 99:1014-1024, 2002.
  7. APGO Educational Series on Women’s Health Issues.  Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorders:  Scope, Diagnosis and Treatment.  APGO, Washington, DC, October 1998. 
  8. Prior JC, Vigna Y:  Sciaretta D, Alojado N, Schulzer M:  Conditioning Exercise Decreases Premenstrual Symptoms:  A Prospective, Controlled Six-Month Trial.  Fertil Steril 47:402-408, 1987. 
  9. Abraham GE:  Nutritional Factors in the Etiology of Premenstrual Tension Syndromes.  J Reprod Med 28:446-464, 1983. 
  10. Dog TL:  Integrative Treatments for Premenstrual Syndrome.  Altern Ther Health Med 7:32-39, 2001.
  11. Fuchs N, Hakim M, Abraham GE:  The Effect of a Nutritional Supplement, Optivite for Women on Premenstrual Tension Syndromes:  Effect on Blood Chemistry and Serum Steroid Levels During the Mid-Luteal Phase.  J Applied Nut 37:1-11, 1985.
  12. Chakmakjian ZH, Higgins CE, Abraham GE:  The Effect of a Nutritional Supplement, Optivite for Women, on Premenstrual Tension Syndromes:  II.  Effect on Symptomatology, using a Double-Blind Cross-Over Design.  J Applied Nut 37:12-17, 1985.
  13. Abraham GE:  Management of the Premenstrual Tension Syndromes:  Rationale for a Nutritional Approach.  In:  1986, A Year in Nutritional Medicine.  Keats, New Canaan CT, 1986.
  14. Muneyyirci-Delale O, Nacharaju VL, Altura BM, Altura BT:  Sex Steroid Hormones Modulate Serum Ionized Magnesium and Calcium Levels Throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Women.  Fertil Steril 69:958-962, 1998.
  15. Posaci C, Erten O, Uren A, Acar B:   Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Levels in Patients with Premenstrual Tension Syndrome.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73:452-455, 1994. 
  16. Thys-Jacobs S:  Current Research into the Role of Calcium in Treating PMS.  Calcium:  Answers for Life-Long Health.  October 1998. 
  17. Kendall KE, Schnurr PP:  The Effects of Vitamin B6 Supplementation on Premenstrual Symptoms.  Obstet Gynecol 70:145-149, 1987. 
  18. London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, Goldstein PJ:  The Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol on Premenstrual Symptomatology:  A Double-Blind Study.  J Amer Coll Nut 2:115-122, 1983. 
  19. Schellenberg R:  Treatment for the Premenstrual Syndrome with Agnus Castus Fruit Extract:  Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.  BMJ 322:134-137, 2001.
  20. Lukaczer D, Liska DJ, Darland G, Bland JS, Schiltz B, Tripp M, Lerman RH:  Improvement in Symptoms and Estrogen Metabolism in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Using a Newly Formulated Medical Food.  Functional Medicine Research Center, Gig Harbor, WA.  Research Report No. 110, May 10, 2001.
  21. Sveinsdottir H, Backstrom T:  Menstrual Cycle Symptom Variation in a Community Sample of Women Using and Not Using Oral contraceptives.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79:757-764, 2000.
  22. Brown C, Ling F, Wan J:  Effect of a New Monophasic Oral Contraceptive on Perimenstrual Symptoms (ABST).  Obstet Gynecol 97:9S, 2001.
  23. Hammarback S, Backstrom T:  Induced Anovulation as Treatment of Premenstrual Tension Syndrome:  A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study with GnRH Agonist versus Placebo.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 67:159-166, 1988.
  24. Mira M, McNeil D, Fraser IS, Vizzard J, Abraham S:  Mefenamic Acid in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.  Obstet Gynecol 68:395-398, 1986.
  25. Eandersch B:  Bromocriptine and Premenstrual Symptoms:  A Survey of Double-Blind Trials.  Obstet Gynecol Surv 38:643-646, 1983. 
  26. Lefler HT:  Premenstrual Syndrome Improvement After Laser Ablation of the Endometrium for Menorrhagia.  J Reprod Med 11:905-906, 1989.
  27. Kubetin SK:  OC’s Inadequate for Managing Most PMS (ACOG Guidelines).  Ob Gyn News, May 15, 2000, p 5. 
  28. Smith S, Rinehart JS, Ruddock VE, Schiff I:  Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome with Alprazolam:  Results of the Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Cross-Over Clinical Trial.  Obstet Gynecol 70: 37-42, 1987.
  29. Berger CP, Presser B:  Alprazolam in the Treatment of Two Sub-samples of Patients with Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder:  A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study.  Obstet Gynecol 84:379-385, 1994. 
  30. Freeman EW, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M:  A Double-Blind Trial of Oral Progesterone, Alprazolam and Placebo in Treatment of Severe Premenstrual Syndrome.  JAMA 274:51-57, 1995.
  31. Rapkin AJ, Edelmuth E, Chang LC, Reeding AE, McGuire MT, Su T-P:  Whole-Blood Seratonin in Premenstrual Syndrome.  Obstet Gynecol 70:533-537, 1987. 
  32. Wood SH, Mortola JF, Chan YF, Moossazadeh F, Yen SSC:  Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome with Fluoxetine:  A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study.  Obstet Gynecol 80:339-344, 1992. 
  33. Steiner M, Steinberg S, Stewart D, Carter D, Berger C, Reid, et al:  Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoria.  N Engl J Med 332:1529-1534, 1995. 
  34. Dimmock PW, Wyatt KM, Jones PW, O’Brien PMS:  Efficacy of Selective Seratonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors in Premenstrual Syndrome:  A Systematic Review.  Lancet 356:113-116, 2000.
  35. Abraham GE, Hargrove JT:  Diagnosis and Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 54:178, 1990. 
  36. Adamopoulos DA, Loraine JA, Lunn SF, Coppen AJ, Daly RJ:  Endocrine Profiles in Premenstrual Tension.  Clin Endocrin 1:283-292, 1972. 
  37. Backstrom T, Sanders D, Leask R, Davidson D, Warner P, Bancroft J:  Mood, Sexuality, Hormones, and the Menstrual Cycle.  II Hormone Levels and Their Relationship to the Premenstrual Syndrome.  Psycho Som Med 45:503-507, 1983.
  38. Rubinow DR, Hoban, MC, Grover GN, Galloway DS, Roy-Byrne P, Andersen R, Merriam GR:  Changes in  Hormones Across the Menstrual Cycle in Patients with Menstrually-Related Mood Disorder and in Control Subjects.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:5-11, 1988. 
  39. Cerin A, Collins A, Landgren B-M, Eneroth P:  Hormonal and Biochemical Profiles of Premenstrual Syndrome:  Treatment with Essential Fatty Acids.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 72:337-343, 1993. 
  40. Redei E, Freeman EW:  Daily  Estradiol and Progesterone Levels Over the Menstrual Cycle and their Relation to Premenstrual Symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology 20:259-267, 1995.
  41. Backstrom T, Carstensen H:  Estrogen and Progesterone in  Relation to Premenstrual Tension.  J Steroid Biochem 5:257-260,  1974. 
  42. Hargrove JT, Abraham GE:  The Ubiquitousness of Premenstrual Tension in Gynecologic Practice.  J Reprod Med 28:435-437, 1983. 
  43. Watts JF, Butt WR, Edwards RL:  Hormonal Studies in Women with Premenstrual Tension.  Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 92:247-255, 1985.
  44. Trunnell EP, Turner CW, Keye WR:  A Comparison of the Psychological and Hormonal Factors in Women with and without Premenstrual Syndrome.  J Abnorm Psych 97:429-436, 1988.
  45. Wang M, Seippel L, Purdy RH, Backstrom T:  Relationship Between Symptom Severity and Steroid Variation in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome:  Study on Serum Pregnenolone, Pregnenolone Sulfate, 5-alpha-pregnan-3, 20-dione and 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-alpha-pregnan-20-One.  J Clin Endocrin Metab 81:1076-1082, 1996.
  46. Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Danaceau MA, Adams LF, Rubinow DR:  Differential Behavioral Effects of Gonadosteroids in Women with and in those Without Premenstrual Syndrome.  N Engl J Med 338:209-216, 1998.
  47. Wyatt K, Dimmock P, Jones P, Obhrai M, O’Brien S:  Efficacy of Progesterone and Progestogens in Management of Premenstrual Syndrome:  Systematic Review.  BMJ 323:1-8, 2001.
  48. Sampson GA:  Premenstrual Syndrome:  A Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Progesterone and Placebo.  Brit J Psychiat 137:209-215, 1979. 
  49. Van der Meer YG, Benedeck-Jaszmann LJ, Van Loenen AC:  Effect of High-Dose Progesterone on the Pre-menstrual Syndrome:  A double-blind cross-over trial.  Psychsom Obstet Gynaecol 2:220-222, 1983.
  50. Dennerstein L, Spencer-Gardner C, Gotts G, Brown JB, Smith MA, Burrows GD:  Progesterone and the Premenstrual Syndrome:  A Double-Blind Cross-Over Trial.  BMJ 290:1617-1621, 1985.
  51. Andersch B, Hahn L:  Progesterone Treatment of Premenstrual Tension:  A double-blind study.  J Psychosom Res 29:489-493, 1985.
  52. Maddocks S, Hahn P, Moller F, Reid RL:  A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Progesterone Vaginal Suppositories in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:573-581, 1986.
  53. Freeman E, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M:  Ineffectiveness of Progesterone Suppository Treatment for Premenstrual Syndrome.  JAMA 264:349-353, 1990.
  54. Arafat ES, Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Desiderio DM, Wentz AC, Andersen RN:  Sedative and Hypnotic Effects of Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone May be Mediated Through Its Metabolites.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 159:1203-1209, 1988. 
  55. Dalton ME:  Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Concentrations in Women with Severe Premenstrual Syndrome.  Post Grad Med J.  57:560-561, 1981.
  56. Dalton ME:  The Effect of Progesterone Administration on Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Binding Capacity in Women with Severe Premenstrual Syndrome.  J Steroid Biochem 20:437-439, 1984.
  57. Spellacy WM, Ellingson AB, Keith G, Kahn-Dawood FS, Tsiberis JCM:   Glucose and Insulin Levels During the Menstrual Cycles of Normal Women and Premenstrual Syndrome Patients.  J Reprod Med 35:508-511, 1990.
  58. Eriksson E, Sundblad C, Lisjo P, Modigh K, Andersh B:  Serum Levels of Androgens are Higher in Women with Premenstrual Irritability and Dysphoria Than in Controls.  Psychoneuroendocrinology 17:195-204, 1992.
  59. Ream NE, Marshall JC, Kelch RP:  Pulsatile LH Secretion in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS):  Evidence for Normal Neuro-Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle.  Psychoneuroendocrinology 17:205-213, 1992.
  60. Lewis LL, Greenblatt EM, Rittenhose CA, Veldhuis JD, Jaffe RB:  Pulsatile Release Patterns of Luteinizing Hormone and Progesterone in Relation to Symptom Onset in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 64:288-292, 1995. 
  61. Redei E, Freeman EW:  Preliminary Evidence for  Adrenocorticotropin Levels as Biological Correlates of Premenstrual Symptoms.  128:536-542, 1993.
  62. Girdler SS, Stranevea PA, Light KC, Pedersen CA, Morrow AL:  Allopregnanolone Levels and Reactivity to Mental Stress in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.  Biol Psychiatry 49:788-797, 2001.
  63. Rapkin AJ, Morgan M, Goldman L, Bran DW, Simone D, Mahesh VB:  Progesterone Metabolite Allopregnanolone in Women of Premenstrual Syndrome.  Obstet Gynecol 90:709-714, 1997.
  64. Chuong CJ, Coulam CB, Kao PC, Bergstralha EJ, Go VLW:  Neuropeptide Levels in Premenstrual Syndrome. Fertil Steril 44:760-764, 1985. 
  65. Facchinetti F, Martignoni E, Petraglia F, Sances MG, Nappi G, Genazzani AR:  Premenstrual Fall of  β-endorphin in Patients with Premenstrual Syndrome.  Fertil Steril 47:570-573, 1987.
  66. Chuong CJ, Coulam CB, Bergstralh EJ, O’Fallon WM, Steinmetz GI:  Clinical Trial of Naltrexone in Premenstrual Syndrome.  Obstet Gynecol 72:332-336, 1988.
  67. Downey J, Yingling S, McKinney M, Husami N, Jewelewicz R, Maidman J:  Mood Disorders, Psychiatric Symptoms and Distress in Women Presenting for Infertility Evaluation.  Fertil Steril 52:425-432, 1989.
  68. Fenerstein M, Shaw WS:  Measurement Properties of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experience in Patients with Premenstrual Syndrome.  J Reprod Med 47:279-289, 2002.
  69. Haynes P, Parry BL:  Mood Disorders and the Reproductive Cycle:  Affective Disorders During the Menopause and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.  Psycho Pharmacology Bull 34:313-318, 1998.


K. Postpartum Depression

  1. Newport DJ, Hostetter A, Arnold A, Stowe ZN:  The Treatment of Postpartum Depression:  Minimizing Infant Exposures.  J Clin Psychiatry 63 [Suppl 7] :31-44, 2002.
  2. Llewellyn AM, Stowe ZN, Nemeroff CB:  Depression During Pregnancy and the Purpureum.  J Clin Psychiatry 58 [Suppl 15] :26-32, 1997.
  3. Leopold KA, Zoschnick LB:  Postpartum Depression.  The Female Patient 22:40-49, 1997.
  4. Marcus S, Flynn HA, Barry KL, Tandon R, Greden JF:  Depression in Pregnancy and Postpartum:  A Review of Critical Issues.  Postgrad Obstet Gynecol 20: 1-6, 2000.
  5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  6. Altshuler LL, Hendrick V, Cohen LS:  Course of Mood and Anxiety Disorders During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. J Clin Psychiatry 59:9-33, 1998.
  7. Wolkind S, Zajicek E, Ghodsian J:  Continuities in Maternal Depression.  Int J Fam Psychol 1:167-181, 1988.
  8. Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R:  Detection of Postnatal Depression.  Br J Psychiatry 150:782-786, 1987.
  9. Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, et al:  Cognitive Therapy of Depression.  New York, New York: Gilford; 1979.
  10. Brockington IF, Cernik KF, Schofield EM, et al:  Puerperal Psychosis:  Phenomena and Diagnosis.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:829-833, 1981.
  11. McGorry P, Connell S:  The Nosology and Prognosis of Puerperal Psychosis:  A Review.  Compr Psychiatry 31:519-534, 1990.
  12. Knopps G:  Postpartum Mood Disorders:  A Startling Contrast to the Joy of Birth.  Postgrad Med 93:103-116, 1993.
  13. Schoepf J, Rust B:  Followup and Family Study of Postpartum Psychosis, 1: Overview.  Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 244:101-111, 1994. 
  14. BenVenuite P, Cabras PL, Cervi P, et al:  Puerperal Psychosis:  A Clinical Case Study with Followup.  J Affect Disord 26:25-30, 1992.
  15. Videbech P, Gouliaev G:  First Admission with Puerperal Psychosis:  7-14 Years of Followup. Acta Psychiatr Scand 91:167-173, 1995.
  16. Georgiopoulos AM, Bryan TL, Yawn BP, et al:  Population-Based Screening for Postpartum Depression.  Obstet Gynecol 93:653-657, 1999.
  17. Stowe ZN, Nemeroff CB:  Women at Risk for Postpartum-Onset Major Depression. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173 (2):639-645, 1995.
  18. Righetti-Valtema M, Conne-Perreard E, Bosquet A, et al:  Risk Factors and Predictive Signs of Postpartum Depression.  J Affect Disord 49 (3):  167-180, 1998.
  19. Posner NA, Unterman RR, Williams KN, et al:  Screening for Postpartum Depression.  An Anti-Partum Questionnaire.  J Reprod Med 42 (4):207-215, 1997.
  20. Stuart S, Couser G, Schilder K, et al:  Postpartum Anxiety and Depression:  Onset and Comorbidity in a Community Sample.  J Nerv Ment Dis 186:420-424, 1998.
  21. Watson JP, Elliott SA, Rugg AJ, Brough DI:  Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnancy in the First Postnatal Year.  Br J Psychiatry 144:453-463, 1984.
  22. Rouillon F, Thalassinos M, Miller HD, Lemperiere T:  Folates and Postpartum Depression.  J Affect Dis 25:235-242, 1992.
  23. Holcomb WL, Stone LS, Lustman PJ, Gavard JA, Mostello DJ:  Screening for Depression in Pregnancy:  Characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory.  Obstet Gynecol 88:1021-1025, 1996.
  24. Josefsson A, Berg G, Nordin C, Sydsjo G:  Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms in Late Pregnancy and Postpartum.  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80:251-255, 2001.
  25. Fergerson SS, Jamieson DJ, Lindsay M:  Diagnosing Postpartum Depression:  Can We Do Better?  Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:899-902, 2002.
  26. Eberhard-Gran M, Eskild A, Tambs K, et al:  Review of Validation Studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.  Acta Psychiatr Scand 104:243-249, 2001.
  27. Bernazznai O, Saucier JF, David H, Borgeat F:  Psychosocial Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Level in Postpartum Women. J Affect Disord 46:39-49, 1997.
  28. Pariser SF, Nasrallah HA, Gardner DK:  Postpartum Mood Disorders:  Clinical Prospectus.  J Women’s Health 6:421-434, 1997.
  29. Josefsson A, Angelsioo L, Berg G, et al:  Obstetric, Somatic, and Demographic Risk Factors for Postpartum Depressive Symptoms.  Obstet Gynecol 99:223-228, 2002.
  30. Parry BL, Newton RP:  Chrono-Biological Basis of Female-Specific Mood Disorders.  Neuropsychopharmacology. 25:S102-S108, 2001.
  31. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau M, et al:  Effects of Gonadol Steroids in Women with a History of Postpartum Depression.  Am J Psychiatry 157:924-930, 2000.
  32. Harris B, Lovett S, Newcombe RG, et al:  Maternity Blues and Major Endocrine Changes:  Cardiff Puerperal Mood and Hormone Study II BMJ. 308:949-953, 1994.
  33. Hendrick V, Altshuler LL, Suri R:  Hormonal Changes in the Postpartum and Implications for Postpartum Depression.  Psychosomatics 39:93-101, 1998.
  34. Nappi RE, Petraglia F, Luisi S, et al:  Serum Allopregnanolone Levels in Women with Postpartum “Blues”.  Obstet Gynecol 97:77-80, 2001.
  35. Wisner KL, Stowe ZN:  Psychobiology of Postpartum Mood Disorders.  Semin Reprod Endocrinol 15:77-89, 1997.
  36. Magiakou M-A, Mastorakos G, Rabin D, et al:  Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Suppression During the Postpartum Period:  Implications for the Increase and Psychiatric Manifestations at this Time.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:1912-1917, 1996.
  37. Susman JL:  Postpartum Depressive Disorders.  J Fam Pract 43 [6 Suppl]: S17-S24, 1996.
  38. Buist A:  Treating Mental Illness in Lactating Women.  Medscape Women’s Health eJournal. 6 (2), 2001.
  39. Practice Guideline for Major Depressive Disorder in Adults.  Am J Psychiatry 150 (Suppl):1, 1993.
  40. Harris B, Oretti R, Lazarus J:  Randomized Trial of Thyroxine to Prevent Postnatal Depression in Thyroid-Antibody-Positive Women.  Br J Psychiatry 180:327-330, 2002.
  41. Sichel DA, Cohen LS, Robertson LM, et al:  Prophylactic Estrogen in Recurrent Postpartum Affective Disorder.  Biol Psychiatry 38:814-818, 1995.
  42. Gregorie AJP, Kumar R, Everitt B, et al:  Transdermal Oestrogen for Treatment of Severe Postnatal Depression.  Lancet 347:930-933, 1996.
  43. Ahokas A, Kaukoranta J, Wahlbeck K, Aito M:  Estrogen Deficiency in Severe Postpartum Depression:  Successful Treatment with Sublingual Physiologic 17-β Estradiol:  A Preliminary Study.  J Clin Psychiatry 62:332-336, 2001.


L. Dating the Beginning of Pregnancy

  1. Cunningham FG, Gant NF, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC, Hauth JC, Wenstrom KD:  Williams Obstetrics. 21st Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 226, 2001.
  2. Hilgers TW, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM, Daly KD:  The Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System:  A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching.  Book II – Advanced Teaching Skills.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE  2003, pp 118-119.
  3. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, Cavanagh D:  Natural Family Planning.  I.  The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation.  Obset Gynec 52:575, 1978.
  4. Hilgers TW, Bailey AJ:  Natural Family Planning II – The BBT and Estimated Time of Ovulation.  Obstet Gynec 55:333-339, 1980.
  5. Gardosi J, Geirsson RT: Routine Ultrasound is the Method of Choice for Dating Pregnancy.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:933-936, 1998.
  6. Kramer MS, McLean FH, Boyd ME, Usher RH:  The Validity of Gestational Age Estimation by Menstrual Dating in Term, Preterm and Post-term Gestations.  JAMA 260:3306-3308, 1998.
  7. Yang H, Kramer MS, Platt RW, Blondel B, Breart G, Morin I, Wilkins R, Usher R:   How Does Early Ultrasound Scan Estimation of Gestational Age Lead to Higher Rates of Preterm birth?  Am J Obstet Gynec 186:433-437, 2002.
  8. Nguyen TH, Larsen T, Engholm G, Moller H:  Increased Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes with Unreliable Last Menstruation.  Obstet Gynec 95:867-873, 2000.
  9. Taipale P, Hiilesmaa V:  Predicting Delivery Date by Ultrasound and Last Menstrual Period in Early Gestation.  Obstet Gynec 97:189-194, 2001.


M. Using Progesterone Support During Pregnancy

  1. Zander J:  Progesterone in Human Blood and Tissues.  Nature (Lond) 174: 406-407, 1954.
  2. Short RV, Eton B:  Progesterone in Blood:  III. Progesterone in the Peripheral Blood of Pregnant Women.  J Endocrin. 18: 415-425, 1959.
  3. Van der Molen HJ:  Determination of Plasma Progesterone During Pregnancy.  Clin Chim Acta 8:943-953, 1963.
  4. Yannone ME:  Plasma Progesterone Levels in Normal Pregnancy, Labor and the Puerperium:  I.  Method of Assay.  Am J Obstet Gynec 101: 1054-1057, 1968.
  5. Yannone ME, McCurdy JR, Goldfien A:  Plasma Progesterone Levels in Normal Pregnancy, Labor and the Puerperium. II.  Clinical Data. Am J Obstet Gynec 101: 1058-1061, 1968.
  6. Johansson EDB:  Plasma Levels of Progesterone in Pregnancy Measured by a Rapid Competitive Protein Binding Technique. Acta Endocrinologica 61: 607-617, 1969.
  7. Csapo AI, Knobil E, Van Der Molen HG, Wiest WG: Peripheral Plasma Progesterone Levels During Human Pregnancy and Labor. Am J Obstet Gynec 110: 630-632, 1971.
  8. Tulchinsky D, Hobel CJ, Yeager E, Marshall JR: Plasma Estrone, Estradiol, Estriol, Progesterone and 17-Hydroxyprogesterone in Human Pregnancy.  I. Normal Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol  112: 1095-1100, 1972.
  9. Lindberg BS, Nilsson BA, Johansson EDB: Plasma Progesterone Levels in Normal and Abnormal Pregnancies.  Acta Obstet Gynec Scand 53: 329-335, 1974.
  10. Parker CR, Everett RB, Quirk JG, Whalley PJ, Gant NF: Hormone Production During Pregnancy in the Primigravida Patient. I. Plasma Levels of Progesterone and 5 Alpha-  Pregnane-3, 20-Dione Throughout Pregnancy of Normal Women and Women W Developed Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 778-782, 1979.
  11. Ottesen B, Lebech PE: Plasma Progesterone, Serum Estriol and Plasma HPL Determinations During the Last Trimester to Detect Changes Before Spontaneous Labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand  58: 423-427, 1979.
  12. Coyle MG, Greig M, Walker J: Blood-Progesterone and Urinary Pregnanediol and Oestrogens in Foetal Death from Severe Pre-Eclampsia. Lanctet: 275-277, August 11, 1962.
  13. Tulchinsky D, Okada DM: Hormones in Human Pregnancy. IV. Plasma Progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 293-299, 1975.
  14. Dawood MY:  Circulating Maternal Serum Progesterone in High-Risk Pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 125: 832-840, 1976.
  15. Allen EI, Lachelin GC:  A Comparison of Plasma Levels of Progesterone, Oestradiol, Unconjugated Oestriol and Total Oestriol with Urinary Tract Oestrogen Levels in Clinical Obstetric Practice.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85: 278-292, 1978.
  16. Csapo AI, Pohanka O, Kaihola HL: Progesterone Deficiency and Premature Labor. Brit Med J. 7: 137-140, 1974.
  17. Cousins LM, Hobel CJ, Chang RJ, Okada DM, Marshall JR:  Serum Progesterone and Estradiol-17β Levels in Premature and Term Labor.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 127: 612-615, 1977.
  18. Horta JLH, Fernandez JG, de Leon BS, Cortes-Gallegos V:  Direct Evidence of Luteal Insufficient in Women with Habitual Abortion.  Obstet Gynec  49: 705-708, 1977.
  19. Radwanska E, Frankenberg J, Allen EI: Plasma Progesterone Levels in Normal and Abnormal Early Human Pregnancy. Fertil Steril 30: 398-402, 1978.
  20. Harrison RF, Youssefnejadian E, Brodovcky H, Johnson M, Dewhurst J:  Secretion Patterns of Plasma-Progesterone, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, and 20 Alpha Hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one in Early Abnormal Pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85: 927-932, 1978.
  21. Dubin NH, Moszkowski EF, Cavoussi KM, Ward MM, Ances IG: Serum Progesterone and Estradiol in Pregnant Women Selected for Progestegen Treatment. Int J Fertil 24: 86-93 1979.
  22. Hertz JB, Larsen JF, Arends J, Nielsen J: Progesterone and Human Chorionic Gonadatrophin in Serum and Pregnanediol in Urine in Threatened Abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 59: 23-27, 1980.
  23. Aspillaga MO, Whittaker PG, Grey CE, Lind T: Endocrinologic Events in Early Pregnancy Failure. Am J Obstet Gynecol 147: 903-907, 1983.
  24. Dawood MY: Progesterone Concentrations in the Sera of Patients with Intact and Aborted Hydatidiform Moles. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119: 911-918, 1974.
  25. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning - I. The Peak Mucus Symptom and Estimated Time Of Ovulation.  Obstet Gynec 52:575-582, 1978.
  26. NCSS 2000 Statistical System for Windows. NCSS, Raysville, Utah, 1998.
  27. Nillius SJ, Johansson EDB:  Plasma Levels of Progesterone after Vaginal, Rectal or Intramuscular Administration of Progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynec 110: 470-477, 1971.
  28. Yovich JL, Willcox DL, Wilkinson SP, Poletti VM, Hahnel R:  Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Does Not Perturb the Profile of Steroid Metabolites in Pregnancy. J Endocr 104:453-459, 1985.
  29. Csapo AI, Pulkkinen MO, Wiest WG: Effects of Luteectomy and Progesterone Replacement in Early Pregnant Patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol  115: 759-765, 1973.
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  31. Russell CS, Paine CG, Coyle MG, Dewhurst CJ. Pregnanediol Excretion in Normal and Abnormal Pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Emp 64: 649-667, 1957.
  32. Shearman RP: Some Aspects of the Urinary Excretion of Pregnanediol in Pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Emp  46: 1-11, 1959.
  33. Russell CS, Dewhurst CJ, Blakey DH: The Pregnanediol Excretion in Suspected Placental Insufficiency. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Emp  47: 1-10, 1960.
  34. Furuhjelm M:  The Excretion of Oestriol and Pregnanediol in Toxemia of Pregnancy and in Post Maturity. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand  41: 370-381, 1962.
  35. Jordan J, Craig K, Clifton DK, Soules MR:  Luteal Phase Defect: The Sensitivity and Specificity of Diagnostic Methods in Common Clinical Use. Fertil Steril   62:54-62, 1994.
  36. Coat-A-Count Progesterone Radioimmunoassay.  Package Insert.  Specificity.  Diagnostic Products Corporation (DPC), Los Angeles, June 8, 1993, p. 7.
  37. Milewich L, Gomez-Sanchez C, Madden JD, MacDonald PC:  Isolation and Characterization of 5α – pregnane 3, 20 – dione and Progesterone in Peripheral Blood of Pregnant Women.  Measurement Throughout Pregnancy.  Gynecol Invest 6:291-306, 1975.
  38. Hilgers TW:  Dating the Beginning of Pregnancy.  In:  Hilgers, TW: The Medical Applications of Natural Family Planning.  Omaha:  Pope Paul VI Institute Press, 168, 1991.
  39. Taipale P and Hiilesmaa V: Predicting Delivery Date by Ultrasound and Last Menstrual Period in Early Gestation. Obstet Gynec  97: 189-194, 2001.
  40. Vaux NW and Rakoff AE:  Estrogen-progesterone therapy:  A new approach in the treatment of habitual abortion.  Am J Obst Gynec 50:353, 1945.
  41. Jones, GES:  Some newer aspects of the management of infertility.  JAMA 141:1123, 1949.
  42. Csapo A, Pulkkinen M:  Indispensability of human corpus luteum in the maintenance of early pregnancy; luteectomy evidence.  Obstet Gynec Surv 33:69-81, 1978.
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